Academic Steps Trust - أمانة الخطوات التعليمية لتعليم اللغة العربية والإسلام






In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate.


GOD has revealed the unbroken chain of belief and guidance through His Prophets to humanity. This book shows how previous Paths converge into THE STRAIGHT PATH. The writer approaches this subject through (a) objective writing and (b) group discussions to clear the mist of misunderstanding held by Muslims and non-Muslims about Islam.

This work attempts to unite the spiritual with the secular both in private and in public life after their long divorce. Religious belief is to be translated into moral action supported by all social systems; ethical, political, economic and in our duty towards God, to oneself and to others. All of these are sustained by a Divine Moral Decree that links the temporal world with the spiritual to save the welfare state of humanity and its destiny.

These writings hope to persuade Muslims, in particular the youth, to adapt a spiritual infusion, to safeguard their beliefs in relation to moral action. To non-Muslims and researchers in this field of study, it allows them to distinguish clearly the differences between Muslim thought, the behaviour of Muslims and Islamic theology and its conduct. It is also directed to assist students who need a reference book for use in Religious Studies and also as a source of reference in public libraries. It is an introduction to study the principles of Divine Decree in the Qur’an.


“And verily this is my Straight Path, so follow it, and follow not other ways, lest they cause you to deviate from His way. This has He enjoined upon you, so that you might remain conscious of Him” [Qur’an, 6:153].


H.M.Abbara is an Educationist specialising in Moral and Religious Development.



1st Step on the straight Path


v   1st Step

v    2nd Step

v    3rd Step

v    4th Step

v    5th Step

v    6th Step

v    7th Step

v    8th Step

v    Introduction


1st Step on the straight Path 


0.0 The Outline.


   We have adopted two approaches: firstly by means of description, and secondly by means of a theoretical dialogue between Muslims and non-Muslims, in order to correct some misconceptions that exist as regards the principles of Islam. Islam being a unity, it is very difficult to describe all its parts separately. Nevertheless, we must separate its components to have access to its inner structure. Therefore the chapters are separate but interconnected. We have structured the book as follows in our attempt to indicate the interdependence of the different aspects of the religion.

O.   The Introduction is the key to the subject. The accompanying discussion encompasses the Straight Path and its meaning. Then follows a brief resume of some of the books; written on Islam by both Muslims and non-Muslims, including Orientalists sources. We have attempted to define religion, religious belief and why people incline towards religion. Why does religious conversion take place within the same religion or to another religion? The relationship between religion and God's Decree leads us to discuss, "The Spiritual Moral Law" which is the constitutions of God’s Decree to control human behaviour and create a balance between good and evils in human life. God granted human mind and freedom but abuse God’s trust, so, those who want to far in wrong way put stop on them, put them back or discipline through unexpected retribution.  

    The main subjects are discussed in the following chapters:

1.   God. Is called in Arabic Allah, is a noun stands by itself, it means the Divinity; the Oneness of God, cannot be made plural or altered to any other form as word god or gods, therefore, some Muslim do not use word god. Non-Muslims consider the word Allah is god of the Arab and Muslims sometimes confirm that by some attitude, while the first verse in the Qur’an, in starting the prayers is: “All Praise is due to God the Sustainer of all worlds (Mankind)”. Knowing God, His Existence, His Oneness, His Attributes through Him; as He revealed Himself through His Revelation to be a criterion of His inspiration, to define His incentive to non-Muslims from Satan stimulation. Then, the Man-God and Muslim-God relationships are discussed, together with their relationship with Sunnatu Allah; which is the constitution of the creation with theree dimension laws: A. the Nartural law, b. the law of the animate and c. the Spiritual Moral Law; (SML) to be in charge of human being behaviour. God’s Decree is passing the verdict according to the ‘Spiritual Moral Law’ which everyone has feeling of it, they call its decree verdict, fate, predestine or other ambiguous divinations. Muslims in spite the revelation they misunderstand it as we will give explanation through the Steps. All Steps are illuminations on the Straight Path, starting with first Step:

2.   Islam. The original word denotes so many meaning but take as name of God’s Religion (Din) as He repeatedly call it. Is the original religion of God to mankind revealed it through His prophets and finally to His last Prophet to cultivate Man to come into upright being. We try to define Islam and its teachings which is comprehending life in its totality, spiritually and worldly. Muslims think that Islam belongs to them. Non-Muslims not only confirm that but even add that it belongs to the Arabs. In fact, Islam belongs to God and all mankind belongs to Him. No one can monopolise it, but only the true believer is connected to it and to Him. Unfortunately, Muslims by their own thought and behaviour give wrong impression about Islam; they stand between Islam and non-Muslims who judge Muslims action in relation to Islam but in many issues are not. We will try to distinguish between who call Muslims by name and true believers or unfocused believers. Then we try to examine the relationship between Muslims and Islam. Then what Islam teaches? Then we refer to Islam and the Primordial norm. Finally we clarify further by our discussion. Islam is related to God’s Revelations and His final message in:

CONTENTS of Step One

Steps on the Straight Path

1st Step on the straight Path 


Chapter One.     God.                                page: 48

     1.1    God Revealed Himself.

     1.2    God's Existence.

     1.3    God's Names.

     1.4. God’s Decree; (Sunnatu Allah)

     1.4.1. The Law of Nature

     1.4.2. Law of living things.

     1.4.3. Law for Human (SML) 

                Spiritual Moral Law

     1.4.3. a. Human nature

B the natural environment

C. The Heredity of the Soul.

D. The Parent Simulation.

E. The social Tradition.

F. The he Development of the Spirit.

G. The Role of Education

l.4.4 Law of Decree  

A. God’s Decree defined in the Qur’an

B. The Constitution of executive

B.1 The Spiritual Moral Law. 

B.1.a Human life is between tow terms.

B.1.b the Night Decree is the Night of Verdict.

B.2. God’s Decree and the religious belief.

B.2.a The Spiritual Law.

B.2. b. The Freedom of the will

B.2.c. God’s Judgement

B.2.d. Faith is the will Power.

B.2.e Conflict and fighting


    1.5    Discussions.

     1.5.1  Oneness of God.

     1.5.2  God's Existence.

     1.5.3  God's Attributes.

     1.5.4  The Man - God relationship.

     1.5.5  Muslim - God relationship.

1.5.6. Sunnatu Allah; God’s Decree

6.A. Laws for Human

6.B.  the General Education is split ends

6.7. Decree Laws

7.a. The Qur’an is Disclosure of Sunnatu Allah.

7.b. Sunnatu Allah and religious belief



Chapter 2.          Islam.                    page:  

     2.1    Definition of Islam.

     2.2    Definition of (Dien,) religion

     2.3    What is religious belief in Islam.

     2.4    Who is the true Muslim?

     2.5    What Islam teaches

     2.6.1  Man's attitude towards God.

     2.5.2  Man's attitude towards the self.

     2.5.3  Man's attitude towards others.

     2.6.   Islam and the primordial norm.

     2.6.1  Islam and the needs of the psyche.

     2.7    Discussion.

     2.7.1  The Characteristics of Islam

     2.7.2  What is the teaching of Islam ?

              2.7.2.A Why Islamic principles?

               2.7.2.B What is human nature?

               2.7.2.C Why this life?

               2.7.2.D What is Human destiny?

     2.7.3   The relationship between Islam and Muslims.





1.1 God Revealed Himself


              "There is no God but He. The Living, the Self-Subsisting, Eternal." [Qur'an  3:2]


            In Islam, God is called Allah, an Arabic word meaning 'the God'. The word "Allah" stands by itself, is indeclinable and cannot take the plural or feminine form, or altered in any other way. It implicitly and inevitably encompasses the idea of Oneness. It is therefore unlike the English word "god" which can be expressed in the plural form.

           Allah is derived from the Arabic al-ilah. The word Ilah (god) may take the plural form; Allah therefore was revealed by God in the Qur'an to give a fresh and fuller content to the concept, and to clear it of any polytheistic association. In the Qur'an there are many instances where His Name, Existence and Attributes are clearly stated as such: there being no god but God - "Allah" - the one God, the Supreme Lord of the Universe, to the exclusion of any other.

     This Oneness of God is the most fundamental aspect of Islam, the real core of the articles of Faith. God as the sole originator determines the destiny of all human the existing balance between good and evils, cause the evildoers punch one another by means of their evil doings, or by others means. .


 The Oneness of God. This is the foundation and the bedrock of the Creed of God’s religion; Islam. Upon this single idea rests the entire edifice of The Faith in God. It implies that the only One God is the sole unchallenged Originator of this world and is in full control of its affairs and destiny by His natural law and Spiritual Moral Law.

      The One Supreme God is implicit in considerations of the origins of life and human life, making possible virtue in accordance with the Original Divine Decree. What is called monotheism in English has arisen among many peoples and the mission of the prophets has been to effect a restoration of the simple religious faith of early humanity. Judaism, Christianity in its original creed, when it speaks of God the Father, and God has revealed His religion; Islam have all affirmed that there is only One God, Who is the primal entity. God is the Ultimate Being in that He is dependent on no higher being. The most important and fundamental teaching of God in Islam is the Oneness of God, who is not a mere Unity of Trinity, nor a Duality, as some heretical traditions suggest by human spiritual faith, expressing their believes. .

       That "there is no, God but God" means that reality consists of both the natural realm, the realm of creation, and the transcendent, the realm of the Creator. This principle distinguishes God’s religion; Islam from other re, which may teach belief in God yet associate a secondary representative as a god with Him or use various symbols for mediators whom they believe, can intercede on their behalf. Such notions are rejected completely by God in His teaching in Islam, which stipulates a pure and direct belief in the Oneness of God.

   This is the pure teaching of God; it is nourishment for the mind and the spirit and provides man with the means to progress and develop a concept of God and not go blindly according to his spiritual whims and worldly desires.

      Belief in One God leads to the spiritual concept of the unity of mankind, and the spiritual principle of human equality, since all mankind are creatures of the One God, and all have descended from one set of parents, Adam and Eve.

      Inasmuch as God stresses the common origin of the human race, we are all one brotherhood, one single family created by God to obey His command. As God is just, He does not allow discrimination between His Creatures on faith basis. Therefore, He does not grant special status to any person or group of people, contrary to the assertions of some people.

           Islam knows no theory of election, not even of Muslims, such as is found in other traditions which claim that someone remains God's elect even if he or she goes astray. There is no descent from special origin or sons of Heaven, nor God’s representative on earth. In Islam, there is no discrimination between high or low, white or black; God places all men on the same level. Only one category is, in some sense, superior to others: "The noblest of you in the Sight of God is  one who is most deeply conscious of Him". The one who lives within his pure spirit and its wisdom, in accordance with Guidance received from Him. Those who follow the Straight Path make progress towards Him:


1.2.  God's Existence


"Can there be any doubt about (the Existence and Oneness of) God, the Originator of the heavens and the earth?" [Qur'an 14:10]


           The pure spirit of every human being testifies to the existence of God. He is innate in the mind and man’s natural dispositions and faculties since the beginning of time but human social life destroyed this instinctive ability. God does not have a beginning or an end. He is eternal. This means that there was no time when God did not exist and He is therefore, Immortal beyond mortality, and nothing can bring His end.

    In primitive societies in the "times of ignorance" men had tried to prove God's existence. But advanced knowledge and scientific research have shifted the burden on unbelievers to prove that there is no God because there is now greater evidence to support belief.

     "One can assuredly prove every truth, but every proof does not enter into all minds. Nothing is more arbitrary than to reject the classic proofs of God, for each one is valid in the relation to a certain need of causality. This need of causality increases not in proportion to knowledge, but in proportion to ignorance."1 So anyone who argues against God may not realize his inner-self, i.e. his spirit. If he recognises his spirit, then he realises his Creator and the pure mind of the spirit itself will willingly communicate with Him and He inspired him by right belief. 

     All men have called God by the same name; the word "God" is unique in its logic in all languages; that is, it works in discourse quite unlike any no other word. The essential characteristic of tradition is an unchanging reality, universal or constant, but men have had different approaches to Him, indicating that although they universally accept the truth, their conceptions of God's Nature have had a tendency to evolve with the development of their religions. To many scholars in the past, this evolution was deemed to have begun with animism (a general belief in spirit), then to polytheism (belief in many gods) and finally it developed into a belief in one God (monotheism).

     The true revealed religion; the Islamic conception is that there is One God, Who is Transcendent. He is the Creator of the world, distinct from and superior to it; that He is also Immanent, in that after the act of creation, His divine law in both aspects, natural and spiritual, continued to work with His Power in the world and in the human affairs by judging their actions and pass His verdict, everyone feels that.

    In regard to the natural law of cause and effect, He says:  "He to Whom belongs the dominion over the heavens and the earth, Who begets no offspring and has no partner in His dominion. For it is He who creates everything and determines its nature in accordance with (His own) Design." [25:2]

   In reference to the Spiritual Moral Decree, He states "Thus, as for him (who gives to others) and is conscious of God, and believes in the truth of the ultimate good - for him shall we make easy the path towards (ultimate ease). But as for him who is niggardly, and thinks that he is self-sufficient, and calls the ultimate good a lie, for him shall We make easy the path towards hardship" [92:5-9].

      All the creatures of the world and the phenomena of the universe are evidence of deliberate planning and design. The ultimate balance of all things is definite proof of His existence and His oneness as He stated.

      Atheists, as well as many theists, abandon belief, and try to invent new conceptions of life, perverting their spirit and innate reason in favour of an abnormality that negates a natural disposition towards belief. They ignore the fact that the very contingency of the world indicates that all phenomena have a reason or explanation and likewise all things display patterns of activity which seem adapted to the production of goals or ends.

    This bond between man and the Supreme Being is indissoluble, no matter how man may try to sever or ignore it. The Perfect Being is always inwardly present as, at the very least, a kind of Substance inside himself and this spirit cannot ignore its Creator since it is created from substance related to its origin, that is, God Himself. Besides that, He has bestowed special favours on him and reminiscence in his subconscious, moral sense and intellect. Therefore, man should acknowledge his real spiritual potential to remember God and His Benevolence and be grateful to Him "And be not like those who are oblivious of God, and whom He therefore causes to be oblivious of themselves" [59:19] That is to say do not cut the relationship that exists between one's spirit and its origin, God. If you purify the spirit; the mind from what planted by social life, it will communicates its original.

     But what actually happens is that man deviates from his upright nature and turns away from true belief in God which is perfectly harmonious with his nature. Just as organic needs, e.g., hunger and thirst, demand satisfaction so our spiritual nature yearns for fulfillment: there is no satisfaction for man's spirit unless he satisfies his need for true God and acts accordingly. If a man has confidence in his own pour spiritual nature, this will in due course raise him up to a belief in his true Lord: everything in the universe becomes a Sign of His Existence.

   However intention to true belief, paves the way, and must come before cognition, as reason and knowledge direct us to the Cause of all Causes. Paradoxically without belief, reason accumulates such details in each field of inquiry without seeing the true causal relationships between ‘facts’. It is no easy task to divorce oneself from all the false ideas that are imprinted in one's subconscious and which have unnoticed effect on one's sensibility. Intention to true belief is the safest and shortest way to true knowledge and spiritual insight. With this the spirit will be imbued with God’s Oneness from the start, and not left labouring under the weight of a mere metaphysical concept.

     Ibn Khaldun wrote that "every person with perception has the superficial impression that the (whole of) existence is comprised by his perceptions, and does not extend beyond them. The matter is different, in fact. The truth lies beyond that; God's Creation extends beyond the creations of man. The world of existence is too vast for him. Therefore, everyone should be suspicious of the comprehensiveness of his perceptions and the results of his perception. This does not speak against the intellect and intellectual perceptions. The intellect, indeed, is a correct scale. However, the intellect should not be used to weigh such matters as the Oneness of God, the Other World, and the truth of prophecy, the real character of Divine Attributes, or anything else that lies beyond the level of the intellect. That would mean to desire the impossible. Thus, the intellect cannot comprehend God and His Attributes. It is but one of the atoms of the world of existence which results from God".2


1.3.  God's Names


"He is God; there is no god but Him. He is the Knower of the unseen and the seen. He is the All-Merciful, the All-Compassionate." [Qur'an 59:22]


     God is quite unlike any transient being. He cannot be compared with any of His creatures. This Oneness and Absolute Uniqueness of God is stressed by the Qur'an:  "There is nothing like unto Him." [42:11], it implies that He transcends utterly even in His Attributes beyond anything that man may conceive. He stands on His own; independent of all existing things.

     How, then, are we able to know about God, knowledge of whom is unattainable via our physical senses? It can be done through that spiritual sense which, if given the chance, is capable of receiving true illumination.

   God asserts that certain knowledge is only attainable from what He has revealed about Himself through Revelations. Throughout history His Messengers have been calling man back to Him. Few of his creation have accepted the Truth of God, that He is One and Unique. He has no partner, no equal, and no son. He is the Sole Creator and Sustainer of the Universe. Every creature bears witness to His Justice, Wisdom, Goodness, Power, Love, Mercy and Righteousness, which ensure order in His Creation in which nothing is out of place. His Mercy is Unbounded, and encompasses everything. The whole Universe is replete with Signs of God. The Pure human spirit itself is seen as a witness and Sign His Grace in human nature, but human tradition ruined this natural ability.

    God revealed that nothing in all Creation has been made without a purpose and man himself has not been created in vain, his purpose being service and obedience to His Decree. God is Justice, the Creator and Sustainer of all that exists, especially of mankind, who should believe that God is One, Omniscient, Omnipresent and Omnipotent. He begets not, and neither was He begotten. He is a Being beyond the range of human comprehension or imagination.

     It is related that some non-Muslims came to the Prophet and said to him, "Describe your Lord, O Muhammad," and he said what God revealed, "Say, He is God (Allah), the One and Only God. The Eternal, the Absolute. He begets none, nor was He begotten, and there is none comparable to Him." [112:1-4].

      And again God revealed Himself in the Qur'an: "God is He save Whom there is no deity; the One Who knows all that is beyond the reach of a created being's perception, as well as all that can be witnessed by a creature's senses or mind. He is the Most Gracious, the Dispenser of Grace. God is He save Whom there is no deity; The Sovereign Supreme. The Holy, the One with Whom all salvation rests, the Giver of Faith, the One Who determines what is true and false, the Almighty, the One Who subdues wrong and restores right, the One to Whom all Greatness belongs. Utterly remote is God, in his limitless Glory, from anything to which men may ascribe a share in His Divinity. He is God, the Creator, the Maker, Who shapes all forms and appearances. His (alone) are the Attributes of Perfection. All that is in the heavens and on earth extol His Limitless Glory, for He alone is Almighty, Truly Wise."   [59:22-24].

      At various places through the Qur'an there occurs mention of ninety nine of His Attributes.

     These Attributes or Names of God, are called, in Arabic  Isma'u Allah al-Husna. The most excellent Names of God, the Attributes of Perfection, tended to play a significant part in later Muslim thought. Debates arose about the Divine Names. Were they norms, essential attributes, qualities or abilities? Each definition became the basis of argument.

    Despite the attribution of qualities to God, the Revelation stands firm, as Qur’an states: "And God's (alone) are the Attributes of Perfection;  invoke Him, then, by these, and stand aloof from all who distort the meaning of His Attributes" [7:180]. His true Attributes are those by which God described Himself or by which the Messenger of God described Him. It is necessary for one to have faith in these Attributes since God is above our comprehension. He is beyond all things, and His Attributes also are beyond all possible interpretation or conception.

    These Attributes are by definition irrefutable, and, not subject to doubt or metaphorical interpretation. Therefore "God warns you to be aware of Him" [3:28], as He inspired you, God grants inner peace to believers, but for those in whose hearts is a disease, untrue faith, He increases their doubts according to their thought and actions. “God changes not what is in people, until they change what is in themselves” [13:11] of untrue belief, and intended to exisit a true relationship with Him, so the have to divorce al wrong faith and wring doing, so He welcome you by true inspiration.   


1.4. 1 The Faith and God’s Decree


           God permitted a freedom of religious belief to everyone. Makes everything in His perfect creations, an open invitation to everyone to contemplate and believe in Him. Any one can get true belief; God gifted human with an instinct towards belief and reasoning supported by inspiration for whoever seeks it, as well as Revelation for guidance. He commands His Prophet and believers to be tolerant, open-minded: “But had God willed, He would have gathered them to the guidance, so be not thou one of the ignorant’ [6:35], Hence religious fanaticism is forbidden as well as being abusive about the religions of others for fear that they may abuse God and His religion; Islam in ignorance.

  He says: “So We turn about the sign, that they may say, Thou has studied’; and that We may make it clear to a people having knowledge. Follow thou what has been revealed to thee from thy Sustainer; there is no god but He; and turn thou away from idolaters. Had God willed, they were not idolaters; and We have not appointed thee a watcher over them, neither art thou their guardian. Abuse not those to whom they pray, apart from God, or they will abuse God in revenge without knowledge. So We have decked out fair to every nation their deeds; then to their Lord they shall return, and He will tell them what they have been doing. [6:105-7]

           Hence, if abusing is forbidden, the use of violence is even more condemned. God approved freedom of religion and He made His religion of Islam above all religions by common sense and reason, therefore, human beings gifted with mind and intellect to discriminate between true God and mediators to Him. He directs man to the right way morally and spiritually. Man tends to follow his desires and social influences that cloud his pure spirit with traditional faiths. True spiritual life does not come spontaneously but comes from effort through purification of the mind from all notions planted unconsciously in early childhood.

           Human beings are created with weakness in regard to spiritual vision, so they are unable to direct themselves to the right path. God knows how easily human beings diverted from the Right Way for many reason, including Satan who are appointed to challenge human beings, particularly in their belief. God helps with inspiration to those who seek help and direct guidance from Him

           Belief in God and giving oneself to His religion is the full measure of His blessing upon whoever seeks to believe; it is given to those who purify their spirit and mind from vices so that they may be able to receive His Blessings.  He says: “Today I have perfected your religion for you, and I have completed My Blessing upon you, and I have blessed you with Islam for your religion” [5:3] So not everyone is worthy of God’s Blessing unless he/she strives hard for it. 

+ We add here    1.4. God’s Decree; (Sunnatu Allah). Please see the Table of Content above. This part needs editing. If you want to do so, please ask for it. Thanks)


1.5.  The Discussion

{Between Abbara and Dina expressing the Islamic view whilst Badr and Charles the opposite side of the argument}


"And yet among men there is many a one that argues about God without having any knowledge (of Him), without any guidance, and without any light-giving revelation scornfully turning aside (from the Truth) so as to lead (others) astray from the path of God."  [Qur'an 22:8-9]


 1.5.1.The Oneness of God


Abbara: God called Himself "Allah", an Arabic word meaning "the Divinity". It refers to God in His Divine Nature.  "Allah" is really the Arabic (al-Ilah), "the God", which most people in the universe believe in and worship in different way. For Muslims, nothing is associated with Him, His Uniqueness is Absolute, but people of other religion worship Him indirectly, through the intercession of idols, statues, human beings or spiritual beings, but in sudden danger they call upon Him directly, forgetting what they associate with him.

Charles: How can they believe in the True God and, at the same time, in other beings?

Abbara: Our natural inclination is to believe in the True God, but parents, environment, and society have translated this spiritual belief into sensational belief in gods or in intermediaries between God and man. Such conceptions obviously conflict with the concept of His Omniscience, and His Oneness and cut the spiritual communication. .

Charles:   Allah, "the God". This name is cognate with the name for God used by Hebrew writers in the Old Testament - Elohim - a fact which supports the Muslim belief that their God is the very same God as was worshipped by Adam, Abraham, Moses and Jesus.

Dina:    Of course, Allah or Elohim is the God of all including the Jews and Christians, although these people have either disobeyed Him or confused Him with His creatures".3

        Many non-Muslims repeatedly use the term "Allah" to mean the God of the Arab, the Muslims, to give the impression that He is the Muslim God only and not the God of the Universe, the Head as it were of all the gods.

     If God is seen from the point of view of language, "Allah" is for the Arabs. The English have their own "God", the French have "Dieu", the Germans, "Gott", the Italians "Dio", the Spanish "Dios", the Swedish "Gud", the Persians, "Khadda", etc. But the Name in every language indicates the same Super-being. Whatever term is used for "God", it makes no difference to His Attributes. Hence the Arabic word "Allah" does not mean the God of the Arabs only but to the all creations. God simply chose the Arabic language in which to convey His final message, so the word still conveys the same meaning that He is the Universal God.

Charles:  Nevertheless, the Encyclopaedia Britannica states under the word "Allah": Allah, the Unique (wahid; one) and inherently One (ahad) God, the Pivot of Islam, The Muslim faith. Allah is Creator, Judge and Rewarder, Omnipotent and All-Merciful."

Dina:  Allah is the Arabic word for "God". The Attributes which were mentioned are generally connected with the Real God of the Universe, not just a Muslim one. The last phrase, "The Pivot of Islam", is not used in its proper sense, because the non-Muslim reader does not know Islam, so it creates confusion.

     The phrase "Muslim Faith", used here to define Allah seems to stress that Allah is different from the God of the Universe.

Charles:  It does not stop there. It explains the word "Allah":  "Etymologically, Allah is probably a contraction of the Arabic al-Llah, 'the god', although the Aramaic Alaha has also been proposed as being known to Arabs even in pre-Islamic times. It is the standard Arabic word for God, used by Christians, as well as by Muslims."

Dina:  I did not say that they ignore the Truth completely, but I question why they have not mentioned the whole Truth. The most essential element in Islam is the doctrine of the Oneness of God. The greatest of all sins in Islam is shirk," association", that is, attributing to anyone or anything God's Unique Sovereignty.

     The unity of the universe is itself evidence of the Unity of Divine Law. Polytheism springs from ignorance and a primitive conception of God. Islam is the only religion which affirms the Oneness of God. Monotheism is affirmed by the first part of the Muslim confession of faith: "There is no god but the One God".

     Islam eliminates a host of heresies that have tormented theologians, philosophers and psychologists. In the West it is atheism, agnosticism and materialism, and in the East it is naturalism phenomena, all taking different approaches to Him. God asserts theism in the boldest way, that there is no God but Him".

Charles:  Islam's faith in God could hardly be summed up better than it is in Lumen Gentium: the document produced by the Office for Non-Christian Affairs of the Second Vatican Council (1962-5). It stresses this fundamental point in these words: "It seems pointless to maintain that Allah is not really God, as do certain people in the West. The Muslims profess the faith of Abraham and worship with us the Sole Merciful God Who is the future Judge of men on the Day of Reckoning."4 And these words appear in Nostra Aetate: "They (the Muslims) adore One God, Living and Enduring, Merciful and All-Powerful, Maker of Heaven and earth, Who has spoken to men."5

Dina:  This is part of the Truth. But God demands the whole Truth, as He says in the Qur'an: "O followers of earlier Revelations! Why do you cloak the Truth with falsehood and conceal the Truth of which you are (so well) aware?" [3:71].

Badr:  Some orientalists claim that Muhammad only learnt about monotheism after coming in contact with Jews and Christians in Madinah. 6 

Abbara:   The beginning of Surah: 74. In spite of its early origin and its brevity, outlines almost all the fundamental concepts to which the Qur'an as a whole is devoted, especially the Oneness and Uniqueness of God.

      Historians cannot ignore the fact that Bilal was severely punished by his master for repeating continuously "Ahad, Ahad" which means "One God, One God" asserts the One God in Makkah not in the Madinah, Anyway such an allegation is irrelevant because the concept of the Oneness of God appears in a more pure form in Islam than it does in Christianity and Judaism.

Charles:  The fact the Qura’nic conception of God appears to contradict the Christian conception of the Unity of God, does not imply that either system or either conception is false. Each conception is a truth in that it is part of a system that is true.7

Dina:  No doubt Islam recognises the validity of early monotheistic forms of Christianity. At the present time, there are still Christians who believe in the One God, and Jesus was the Messenger of God, and His Word of Mary that he created by.

Charles:  But still Muslims believe the Christians are guilty of polytheism. Christians believe that God has spoken His Word not only in the form of a book but also in the form of a person, that the Word of God is a living man, Jesus Christ, as well as living literature, The Scriptures.8

Dina:  Muslims believe in One God. As He taught them in the Qur'an, it is not a made up belief.

Charles:  We conclude or discussion with what Charles, the Prince of Wales says: “It is odd in many ways that misunderstanding between Islam and the West should persist. For that which binds our two worlds together is so much more powerful than that which divides us. Muslims, Christian and Jews are all ‘people of the Book.’ Islam and Christianity share a common monotheistic vision: a belief in one divine God, in the transience of our earthly life, in our accountability for our actions, and in the assurance if life to come.”9  

Badr: God is The One, all methodologies aiming to Him, but everyone thinks his belief is the right one 

Abbara: You are right but belief beyond our perception, the only right belief is the one told byGod Himself about Him.


1.5.2.      God's Existence.


"We only send the Apostles to give glad tidings and to give warnings, but the unbelievers’ dispute with vain argument, in order therewith to weaken the truth, and they treat My Signs as a jest, as also the fact that they are warned!" [Qur'an 18:56] 


Abbara: God reveals Himself to man through the unfailing harmony of His Creation, and the Qur'an orders man to reflect on His Creation and reflect on everything in the Universe: "And on earth there are Signs (of God's Existence, visible) to all who are endowed with inner certainty, just as (there are Signs thereof) within your own selves: can you not, then, see?" [51:20-1] For example, we cannot see light, but it enables us to see things. We cannot see the sound waves around us. Similarly, the spiritual realm, we cannot see God, but in His Perfect Creation we can recognize that our temporary existence is linked with Eternal Existence.

Dina:  All that bears witness to the Existence of the Creator, but God support His sings by His revelation.

Charles:  In order to prove the Oneness of God and His Existence, the Qur'an lays frequent stress on the design and order in the Universe, and this is a normal principle in every religion which asks for man's contemplation of the Universe.

Dina:  We know the author from his books, we diagnose the illness by its symptoms but pathologists use one kind of investigation while specialists use another. But all return to the cause. So the Qur'an is an open book attracting our attention to things around us and thereby leading us to Him. The Qur'an was revealed to confirm what was held by one's subconscious knowledge and to warn mankind against following his own imaginings. It affirms the Existence of God and does not argue about it, calling attention to the 'Signs' in nature. All sorts of natural phenomena have been ordered in such a way that they contribute to the maintenance of human life and the comfort of individuals. All that is requested from us is to recognise Him, the Provider of all these things. But we cling to our earthly inclinations rather than lift ourselves to the realm of spiritual development during this life.

Badr:  I would like to add, since the Universe cannot have originated itself, consequently and reasonably, God is its Originator. But the Universe cannot be eternal as long as it had a beginning; there must be an end. Scientists assume so and God says it in the Qur'an that "Everything is born to perish, save His (eternal) Self. His is the judgment, and unto Him you shall be returned." [28:88].

Dina:   The fact is that every created thing will meet a certain end. If co-incidence has brought them into existence it has no power to end them, but if there is a power, then that is testimony of God’s existence. The human spirit itself is viewed as a witness to God and His Grace bestowed upon mankind.

Abbara:  As we said, God lives in the pure heart, spirit, mind of every human being. The pure spirit cannot ignore its Creator, since it is created from a substance, the Origin, of which is God Himself, as He stated: “ And breathed into him (Adam) of My Spirit” [15:29] and the result of the spirit is the mind which is evidence of God’s existence no matter if some use it in the opposite way. And result of the mind is the variations in our languages, but in spite of our living in different environments we still have feelings and expressions that are the same. God includes His name in every language, and in it too goes the original feeling of belief in One God.

Charles:    But atheists do not believe in God, nor in the idea of spirit. They do believe that phenomena such as intellect, memory, desire and emotion, are the result of mere chemical interactions.

Dina:  As you know, chemical research is now very advanced, so why haven’t scientists discovered these chemical functions yet?  If they can do so, then they can raise the intellect of man to a higher standard and save him from death. They cannot give any answers to these questions; it is spiritual beyond their perception.

   He who believes in the spirit in himself believes in God, or, in other words, "Who knows the spirit in himself knows his Lord".

Abbara:  Our superiority to the animals lies in our possession of intellect. The source of the intellect is the spirit, not the brain. The interrelationship between the spirit and the brain results in ideas, which appear in the mind. It is similar to the relationship between the broadcast, broadcaster and satellite. 

Charles:    But what is the function of the brain?

Abbara.  The spirit through the soul uses the individual brain and sense faculties as tools. Nevertheless, concerning the brain function itself, conscious and unconscious, it should be easy now to find out the relationship between the ten billion neuron which the brain usually has. Otherwise we have to believe that the brain is a tool of the spirit, and our mind is related to spiritual issues rather than to biological tissues.10

Dina:     What are the other functions of the spirit?

Abbara: One of the other functions of the spirit is to convey to us our origin that is God, by giving us inspiration, and revealing glimpses of the spiritual world through inspirational visions.

Badr:  What do we gain from inspiration and how can we distinguish between true inspiration and the whispering of evil?

Abbara: The realm of spiritual world: The higher is from God and the lower from Satan; and every individual receives according to the demands of his inner-self. The spirit plays a part in "inspiration".  When you ask a creative man "How did you come by this idea, invention, etc?"  Whether he believes in God or not, he will say, "I do not know," or unconsciously says "From God."

    All theologians believe in God-Guidance - which also happens by way of inspiration, and the worshipper feels it as a religious experience, as enlightenment from his Lord. Many of us have experience of telepathy, alleged communication by other than known physical means, of thoughts, feelings, etc., from one mind to another. Such experience gives evidence of God's Presence in the spirit of believers. On the other hand there is the temptation to evil by Satan, who whispers into our hearts through our spirit.

Charles: In this respect, Christ, who advised his audience to pray to God in secret, to "enter the closet and shut the door" and then to pray, for only under such a condition would their heavenly Father hear their prayer and grant them His Grace and Succour, could not promise them through an intercessor.

Dina: Actually, the spirit plays its role privately. God alone can provide inspiration, not Jesus or Muhammad, peace be upon them. But I would add that evil people get help from evil spirits. Hence, this is evidence that there are spiritual worlds behind our vision but within our ability to perceive.

Abbara: If you believe in the spirit in you, and let it communicate with its Origin after you have purged your soul of evil deeds and impulses, then you will receive spiritual guidance. If you lose that link, you will go astray, and lack happiness in this life, no matter how much material success you have. If you are spiritually aware, the communication is two-way between pure spirit and God. Or on another hand, it could be the whispers of Satan with its counterpart.


1.5.3. God’s Attributes


           "To God belong the Names Most Beautiful; so call Him by them, and leave those who blaspheme His Name, they shall assuredly be recompensed for the things they did." [Qur'an, 7:180]


Abbara:   God is Imperceptible to our physical senses. We know Him only inasmuch as what have issued from Him. The Qur'an has revealed His ninety-nine Names, which indicate His Attributes in each aspect of His Self, His Existence, His Oneness, and His Power in controlling all created things by his Divine Law His Greatness His Glory, and His Mercy to all His Creation makes no distinction between believers and non-believers in substance material of this life according to His rules and recourses. .

Charles: What a paradoxical combination! To me, these ninety-nine Names indicate a "unitary conception" rather than a genuine unity or Oneness.

Abbara: Well, God is above our comprehension, but He revealed Himself by opening the ninety-nine gates of His Attributes to satisfy the needs of our imagination in many dimensions, so every individual receives according to his spiritual ability and attention. Devotional expressions also invoke God. When making supplication, one should use the Name most appropriate to the content of one's petition, thus facilitating spiritual communication. When a Muslim believes that God is All-Knowing, All-Seeing and the Sustainer, he watches his way in this life, living in God consciousness. God's Omniscience cannot have full meaning except to scientists or believers who when they discover a new relationship between elements, admire the excellence of God's Knowledge in setting the principle, and feel humble for their own lack of knowledge.

      The custom in England is to christen a child with more than one name. Does it mean that if a child has four or five names, the parent has four or five children? Or only one with different names? In the same way, all the ninety nine Names belong to the One God.

Dina:  The quality of His Being is beyond the range of human comprehension or imagination, which explains why any attempt at "depicting" God by means of figurative representations or even abstract symbols, must be termed a blasphemous denial of the Truth.

Badr: But the Qur'an repeatedly mentions His Hands, i.e., when He created Adam "...which I have created with My Hands” His Eyes, Sight, and so on.

Abbara:  This metaphorical expression is based on the concept of handiwork, e.g., "in His Sight" means "under His Protection". God is unlike any transient thing and His substantiality is His Own, but the Qur'an uses language that is understandable by human beings according to their perception.

Charles: The qualities of "Might" and "Splendour" are not mentioned very often in the Qur'an by comparison with the qualities of Mercy and Compassion.

Abbara:  The qualities of Might and Splendour are indispensable in Islam. Divine Mercy is not identical with Divine Vengeance because it warns oppressors and unjust people not to go too far in their wrong course of action. If we check the Qur'an, for example, in 6:12, where "He has prescribed for Himself Mercy."  Is there stronger evidence than that? He willed upon Himself the Law of Grace and Mercy. None of the other Divine Attributes has been similarly described. This exceptional quality of God's Grace and Mercy is further stressed in 7:156:"My Grace overspreads everything," and finds an echo in the authentic Tradition in which, according to the Prophet, God says of himself, "Verily, my Grace and Mercy outstrips my wrath."11

Charles:  I would add that Justice and Mercy interpenetrate, which is related to the Judeo-Christian tradition, whence the above is derived, with certain modifications."12

Abbara:  Of course, some Muslim theologians misinterpreted it…

Badr:   For the Jew, God is Just. For the Christian, He is Love. For the Muslim He is Power. So every follower of a religion concentrates on one particular Attribute rather than the others.

Abbara:  For Islam, it is a combination, and each Attribute fits in neatly in a balance of justice in every action sooner or later. But it is beyond man's judgment.

Charles:  Judaism and Christianity have insisted that although God is Omnipotent, He cannot act in a way contrary to His Nature, whilst Islam places no limit whatever on the power of God.13 Also we read in the Encyclopaedia Britannica under the section "Islamic People", that "God creates everything anew in every moment and what is called a "law of nature" is nothing but God's custom, which he can interrupt whenever he pleases."14

Abbara:   The Attributes of God in Christianity, Judaism and Islam are the same, but people have misinterpreted them. However, the formula is not easy to interpret from the Islamic point of view. This polemic on God's Decree may have reference to Muslim theology where it is misinterpreted and misjudged. The Revelation contains verses, which give laws and directions, and others which are ambiguous. Those whose hearts deviate from the right Path use the ambiguous parts to create misinterpretations and give false judgments, and many Muslims fall into this trap. They do not pay attention to the relationship between all the verses spread throughout the whole Qur'an. We will come back to this later. The Qur'an can only be a manifestation of the Divine Decree, not the Decree itself, as most people think, as we pointed out before. Hence, God may show Mercy for a while, and postpone punishment for the evil-doer if he continues in his evil ways, but God's Law of Justice will demand penance in the end.

Dina:  A verse in the Qur'an refers to: "He who creates everything and determines its nature in accordance with (His own) design" [25:2], meaning that everything is created according to its primordial norm and its functions are related to that. So God in Islam is not temperamental but has determined for each phenomenon its function by a natural law, our relationship by Divine Law and Divine decree; the Spiritual Moral Decree, in this regard, we are responsible for our actions.

Charles:  But why do you try to ignore the fact that God, the Omnipotent enters into the life of every Muslim, which consequently means that one need not take refuge in other than God to secure one's wishes. Therefore, fear of God is recommended throughout the Qur'an from cover to cover.13 Furthermore, as we read in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, under the section "Islamic People", "God is the only actor who can do whatever he pleases, whose will is inscrutable. Man is, at best, a puppet on a string, behind whose movements those with insight detect the hand of the play master...16

Abbara: The Qur'an always gives prominence to the relationship between man and God, so that man may live in God consciousness and not in hopelessness. As to the second point, the word "God-fearing" khauf is mentioned in the Qur'an several times. You will realise that when you read the Qur'an in the original language. If you read it in English, you are right, because all interpreters except Asad translate the word taqwa, as "God-fearing", while, in fact, it denotes "God-consciousness".  The whole purpose of life is to live in God-consciousness and to develop the spirit during this life in order to gain a better standing, in the presence of the Sovereign who determines all things, in the Hereafter.

     As to the third point, we will have a full discussion (in 6.1.6) on how Muslims shift their responsibility on to God's Shoulder for their misjudgment of God's Decrees. And we will show in chapter 3 how some Qura’nic verses are sufficiently flexible to satisfy the need of those who cannot establish the true relationship between them. Most non-Muslims fall into such misinterpretation.

Charles:  What do you say about the theory that Muhammad adopted a Name for God from pre-Islamic inscriptions shown to have been current in Arabia? ar-Rahman, "The Compassionate One",17 is mentioned in the Qur'an in 17:110;  "Call upon God, or call upon the Compassionate One" indicates two deities.

Abbara:  We have said that God has ninety-nine attributes and if you invoke Him by any one of them, you are still entreating the One God, so the above verse means, "Invoke God or invoke The Most Gracious", by whichever Name you invoke Him (He is always the One, for) His are all the Attributes of Perfection" [17:110] and this word ar-Rahman is repeatedly mentioned in the Qur'an, particularly at the beginning of every chapter, i.e., "In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate." Every good Muslim precedes action with these words, knowing they refer to His attributes, and not to two gods. If you ask any Muslim about it, he will be surprised at such an accusation as he will never have heard of it.

    Scholars in the Arabic language claim to know God's words but confound the Truth with their own vanity. Rhetorical flourishes of this kind read very unsatisfactorily in contemporary English: They alienate the average reader form the Truth.

Dina:  This allegation bears no relation to the Truth. Some people always try to find evidence that God in Islam is not the True God Who spoke to Moses, or God the Father. If they believe He is the same God, then they do not fulfill God's Covenant revealed to Moses. In the Bible, in "Deuteronomy", it says, "The Lord said to me, 'What they say is good. I will raise up for them a prophet like you, from among their brothers; I will put my words in his mouth, and he will tell them everything I command him. If anyone does not listen to my words that the prophet speaks in my name, I myself will call him to account.'" [17-19]. The statement does not say from "you O Children of Israel" but from "among their brothers" who are obviously the Arabs, who trace their descent to Ishmael, while the Children of Israel have descended from Isaac; both are children of Abraham, and hence are brothers. So therefore they should find an excuse for themselves and not accuse Islam, to enable them to live in peace with their conscience.

Charles:  But you ignore the rest of the quotation, which says "But a prophet who presumes to speak in My Name anything I have not commanded him to say, or a prophet who speaks in the name of other gods, must be put to death."[Deuteronomy 18:20]

Badr:  What a funny debate. The Jews say, He is our Lord and our Old Testament is the best and we are 'God's chosen people.'"  The Christians say, "God the Father, who has promised salvation to all who believe in Jesus as God's Son" and "the New Testament is the only foundation of faith". For the Muslim, "Our God, 'Allah', is the only God, and The Qur’an is the True Words of God and abrogates the others."  All of you have fancy ideas, and witty arguments about God, and every party would like to claim Him, of course. He is the Just and therefore, all human beings are His creatures, not only you. As He stated in the Qur'an "It may not accord with your (Muslim) wishful thinking, nor with the wishful thinking of the followers of earlier Revelation (Jews and the Christians), that he who does evil shall be requited for it and shall find none to protect him from God, and none to bring him succour. Whereas anyone, be it man or woman, who does good deeds and is a believer withal, shall enter Paradise." [4:123-4]. so He is the Lord of the righteous, those who do well and shun evil, not the Lord of any particular group, party or nations, as everyone claims. There is no verse in the Qur'an which states that He is the Lord of the Muslims, only that He is the Lord of the universe, as He stated in the first verse in the Qur’an: “Praise belong to God, the Lord of all Being”.

Charles: but Muslim say: the Lord of Muslim, in practice, and invoke Him to destroy others.

Dina: not according to their desire, as you said the Muslim said not God, but, in particular the Sustainer of the believers who do good and justice to themselves and others, those who try to establish a close relationship with Him in this life in order to be closer to Him in the next.


1.5.4.  The Man - God Relationship


                        "Verily, such evil-doers are but friends and protectors of one another, whereas God is the Protector of all who are conscious of Him."  (Qur'an 45:19)


Abbara: God is the sustainer of all human beings, they are His creature: He grants Mercy to all His creation. whether one is a believer or not, or if one has a relationship with Him or not, still he grants His Favour upon all, according to His Eternal Justice and Divine Law. Those who believe in Him and do good deeds have a sound relationship with Him are granted more guidance and given inspiration to the Right Way, and they may be saved from the consequences of their bad actions when they follow their own decisions without taking heed of His Guidance. Hence all people have some kind of relation with God, willingly or unwillingly, inspiring them towards the good. But, at the same, time if they completely diverge from the Right Way, He is the Almighty, the One who subdues wrong and restores right between them. He loves them who do well, but dislikes the action of evil-doers, not them personally but their bad actions.

Dina:  I understood from what you say that God's relationship with human beings has three levels: a) a general one, with all His Creation, without any discrimination, so that no community has a monopoly of Him; b) negative relations with those who increase corruption, oppression and evil, but leaving an essential link with them in case they revert to the Right Way; not dominating them, but granting them freedom to be accountable for their actions; c) a relationship with the true believers, particularly those living in God consciousness, for whom He grants Guidance to the Right Path.

Badr:  Sorry. I have no experience of such a relationship. Could you explain how it happens?

Dina:  Do you ever have the feeling that you have met a person whom you have never met before, and your heart starts sending a message to him and finally you break the silence and speak to him? Surprisingly, you discover that the same idea has occurred to him. His reaction to you was the same as yours to him, and may you have an experience of telepathy.

Badr:     Yes.  It has happened to everyone.

Abbara:   So you have got the sixth sense.

Badr:     What do you mean?

Abbara:  That you have got the spirit and it plays its part in spiritual communication. If your heart starts sending messages to God, you will receive an answer, so it is extremely important to secure a balance in your well-being between soul, spirit and body to guarantee stability in your life, since spiritual perfection is the object of this life. Then the communication with God will develop on the right basis.

Badr:   But I have tried. I got nothing; neither sense nor feeling.

Abbara: It could well be that your past bad actions stand as a barrier. As God points out in the Qur'an, "But their hearts are corroded by all (the evil) that they were wont to do." (83:14). It means that there are barriers between you and Him, as we mentioned above. The main obstacle being evil-doing made you forgetting God. "Be not as those who forgot God, and so He caused them to forget their own selves. (for) it is they, they who are truly deprived."(59:19) The relation starts from you and God's open Invitation is there for anyone at any time welcome, through mind investigation and inspiration.

Badr:  I never do evil to anyone and I have a good heart, but I have not been invited to contact God.

Abbara: You should dissociated from your proud of self-righteous, never boast about your own purity, but remain humble and remember that God says: “Do not consider your-selves pure-[for] He knows best as to who is conscious of Him”(53:32) You have to approach Him by right intention and good deeds as He prescribed, not by words, with sincerity and consciousness, and this will forge the link.

Charles: A relationship with God is hard to acquire. There is a veil between God the Master and man the servant as you belief. In Christianity, humanity's relationship with God is as children, or sons of God, therefore God's Love inspires all people to believe in Christ. In fact, he is essentially a manifestation of the Divine Presence. Listen to the verse in John, 3:16 "For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish but have external life." The relationship is simple, and one should not live in doubt whether one's actions have been accepted or not, as, for example, in Muslim theology.

Dina:  You mean there is a simple way to create this relationship with God? One must start with intention followed by attention, then loving, then come to desire, and finally to know as the result of God's Love. My interpretation is different. I think you are referring to the first category of relationship, not the positive one. Why is that so?  Do you think that the relationship between parents and children is as simple as if the child were to say to its parents, "I love you". Surely they love him. But if the child never listens to his parents, certainly his parents are not going to deprive him of the materials for his living requirements. And still they love him as parents. But do you think there is a spiritual relationship between them?

      On the other hand, if the child obeys his father and listens to him and serves him as a servant, what will his services be?  They will be: being a good boy, not causing corruption at home, not oppressing his younger brother, and no evil-doing in general. Hence he does the duty he was created for according to his ability, and he will be granted more love and more favours. Do you think that those who obey their parents are servants? In the same way, the believers will have the honour to be the servant of God. Similarly, in Islam, one must start by knowing his Creator, behave, obey, and approach Him with a clean heart, by good action, and then come to desire a relationship with Him and finally, if he is sincerely true in his devotion, God will grant the relationship. God is Pure and attracts those who purify themselves by devotion and not merely by words.

Charles:  Christ is within us; it is the heart which is both intellect and love. "The kingdom of heaven is within you". If you accept Christ, you will gain a relationship with God and salvation. It is only in gnosis that the spiritual functions. It is exoteric to Christians but esoteric for the Muslims.

Abbara:  The territory is metaphysical, but the axiom which is taught by Islam is that God created Adam and breathed into him of His Spirit, so the spirit is the agency of God in man's body. It engenders in the body a pure disposition, whilst the soul inherits the parents’ qualities. If a man follows his lust or the desire of his soul, the spirit - the agency of God- does not function to guide him to the Right Way, so he will go astray and not able to communicate with the Absolute. His spirit will remain imprisoned in his body and fail to develop upward.

Dina:  On the other hand, if there is a mature relationship between God and man, i.e., the spirit, then the soul satisfies its desires by lawful means, without evil-doing. It will progress in purity as well. If a balanced relationship exists within man's purified heart, then it is easy for him to spread goodness outward to all humanity. Then he can build up his relationship with God, not by theoretical love but as the lover who truly loves and obeys his beloved. First he must have intention to believe and have faith, then desire, then comes belief arising from his investigations into Truth by reading and reflecting. When realisation comes, he can translate his sincerity of belief into action, within the Divine Guidance, not according to his imagination. Finally, enlightenment comes through God- consciousness.

Badr:   According to this definition, very few can have a real relationship with God.

Dina:  Yes, indeed. The God man relationship is not acquired by imagination or hope. It cannot work in a vacuum but grows in perfect actions. If an individual start to move towards God, God's Inspiration will start to dwell within the spirit. Such relations are not a monopoly of Jews, Christians or Muslims, as we said before. He is the Lord of all Being, in particular guard the true believers.

Abbara: In this context, there is a saying of the Prophet to the effect that God the Almighty has said: "My servant does not draw near to Me with anything more loved by Me than what I have imposed upon him, and My servant continues to draw near to Me with voluntary works so that I shall love him. When I love him, I am the hearing with which he hears, the seeing with which he sees, the hand with which he strikes, and the foot with which he walks. Were he to seek (something of Me) I would surely give it to him; and were he to ask me for refuge, I would surely grant him it."18

Charles:    Why Muslims claimed such relationship?


1.5.5. Muslims-God Relationship


"That is because God is the Protector of all who have attained to Faith, whereas they who deny the Truth have no protector." [Qur'an 47:11]


Abbara: We earlier enquired into the relationship between God and Man. Here we would like to deal with the relationship between the ummah, or Muslim Community as a whole, and God. Do Muslims live according to His Message? Do they have a significant relationship with Him? If they practice friendship, loyalty and devotion to God, they will, as the defenders and supporters of God enjoy of His Favour.

Dina:  The Qur'an discusses this issue in many passages that instruct Muslims how to behave. He warned them "Do not trust another system with your affairs," but not only did they do so, they committed their affairs to the care of others. So according to the Divine Law of justice and freedom of choice, God allowed them to follow a path other than that of the believers. The believers love God and follow His Will, and in return He loves them and guides them to the Right Way and leads them to spiritual health and prosperity.

Charles: Could you give us a definition of ummah?

Abbara: The term ummah denotes a community; it designates the Believers community as a single unified entity. It has both a specific and a more a general meaning. For example, the Qur'an [3:110] indicates that if Muslims co-ordinate their life according to Islamic principles, it will be the best Ummah, which enjoins the right conduct and forbid what is disreputable. Then 2:143 says that it maintains an equitable balance between extremes pursues the path of moderation and establishes the middle way.

Dina: Frederick Denny says, "Comprehensive understanding of the ummah in history and in the present requires a grasp of the sweep of the Islamic experience and self-interpretation of profound depth and breadth." And he adds, "Because the ummah is an intentional moral community, definition must characterise it as both ideal and somewhat abstract as well as practical and functional a 'symbol of cohesion and cohesive force' at the same time, which, at its truest and best, reflects a community which is 'in a bond of God, and a bond of the people'" [3:112] 19 

Dina:    God says: "You are the best nation ever brought forth to man: you enjoin the doing of what is right and forbid the doing of what is wrong and believe in God." [3:110]. these conditions have not been fulfilled by the whole community but only by certain individuals. His public rule has not been generally applied, particularly the principle of justice: He is the Just and He loves those who apply justice. Furthermore, they befriend those with whom God was wrathful and actually followed their systems of life, in spite that, called them “Islamic ummah”, instead Muslim Ummah. 

Abbara:  The Qur'an says "Art thou not aware of those who would be friends with people whom God has condemned? They are neither of you (O believers) nor of those (who utterly reject the Truth) and so they swear to falsehood while they know (it to be false)" [58:14], so their relationship with those who bond their relationship with this life rather than Go-relation. 

Charles: Men usually imitate those around them, so Muslim societies ape Western societies in order to “advance”. They copy our systems because they have not reached our standards of social security and justice.

Badr:  Thus, to my mind, they have no relationship either vertically - with God justice-, horizontally - with themselves or the Western justice in social life.

Abbara: As we said The Right Way of God and His blessing to resign yourself to His religion, but those who are in charge of the Muslims societies change His blessing into veto, so they corrupted the dwellings and the mind of Muslims, God says; “Are thou not aware of those who have exchanged God’s blessing with un, and cause their people to dwell in the abode of ruin? [14:28], so they strayed fro His Path.     

Dina:  Such relationships demand sincerity to God alone "Thou canst not find people who (truly) believe in God and the Last Day and loving anyone who contends against God and His Apostle - even though they were their fathers or... kindred" [58:22] The main aim of sending Prophets was not only to create private relationships but to apply God's primary Demand for justice, as He stated:  " We sent forth our Apostles with clear signs and sent down with them the Book and the Balance (of Right and Wrong), that man may stand forth in justice". [57:25]. so without applying justice no relationship with Him

Charles:   All this indicates that there is no relationship between the Muslim ummah and God, unless they apply His commandments and recommendations, while non Muslim applying them to some extant in their worldly affairs.

Abbara:  No. Please do not think that. It means that no Muslim society applies the public system set out by God, i.e., the horizontal relationship within the whole ummah and the vertical relationship with God. But as individuals, there are many Muslims who are supported by their bond with God but, unfortunately, their bond with people is loose. Therefore "overshadowed by ignominy are they, wherever they may be, save (when they bind themselves again) in a bond with God and a bond with men." [3:112]. Because their relationship with God comes through their bond with His People. When they apply justice they love each other, and God loves them. The one most beloved by God is the one who is the most beneficial to His creatures. "And persevere in doing well: behold, God loves the doers of Good" [2:195].

Dina:  Finally we pray to God as he taught us "Our Lord, make us not a temptation to those who disbelieve, and forgive us." [60:5] and repeated this command “O our Sustainer, make us not temptation to evil for evildoing fol.[10:85) it means please help us to do good not evil deed, so disbelievers, when saw our evil action correspond it to Islam, that what has happened,

Charles:   What does that mean?

Abbara:   It requests to God to guide us in the Right Way so that we do not do wrong. Because non-Muslims see Islam by way of the actions of Muslims, any wrong behaviour may be assumed to be part of Islam. So often sadly Muslims acts as a barrier between non-believers and Islam by their wrong action, few Muslim acts in their own way, while considered their action by God’s commandments, God create and they kill by His name and claim relationship with Him!.

Dina: God commandments are clear always instructed to do good for all including enemy who prevent them from exercise of their religious duties: “And never let your hatred of people who would bar you from the Inviolable House of Worship lead you into the sin aggression; but rather help one another in furthering virtue and God-consciousness, and do not help one another in furthering evil and enmity; and remain conscious of God” [5:2]. This is God commandment and that Muslim action does not accomplish any kind of relationship absolute justice. 

Charles: but that does not wipe out the Islamic terrorist, which become well known, not only in their countries but they transfer it in particular to the West and, in general to all over the world

Abbara: First of all, it is irrelevant to use this term “Islamic Terrorist” Islam means God’s religion, using this expression it goes against God’s Commandments, so His wrath upon who use it and upon Muslim who causes it by his actions.      

      Secondly, taking a soul which God created it is an aggression against His creation. However, if it happened by mistake, and the victim is a non-Muslim from a people with peaceful relations; in such case the penalty to pay the indemnity and free a slave, or soul from bondage, and who does not have should fast two continuous months. [4:92], this by mistake not allowed, how can be justified deliberately, 

           Any Muslim lives in non-Muslims state, and granted a visa or nationality he boned himself with law of the country, if a war occurred with his original country he is not in position to help the Muslim country, as God says: [Yet, if they the ask you for help, for religion’s sake, it is your duty to help them, except against a people between whom and you there is a covenant’ [8:72). Thus; Islam is not a self-interest rules but rules of God for all His creation and the relationship with Him are depends on the relation with others.      

Dina: Now we move to the next chapter, Islam, which means God’s Message. Knowing Islam is the certainly knowledge of God as well.

 2.   ISLAM


"Behold, the only true religion with God is Islam" [Qur'an 3:19]

2.1. Definition of Islam.


                 Islam is the name of the Religion of God, The Qur'an uses this name to refer to all religion of God and His revelations before the Qur'an. The Qur'an contains the Divine message as revealed in the period 610-632 CE to His prophet Muhammad (born in Makkah 570 CE, died 632 CE). The medium used to convey His message was the Arabic language, which, in the view of scholars, is the richest language there is. 

    For example, the word Islam itself has an expansiveness and generosity of meaning in Arabic that one may wonder whether it was specifically originated in order to convey  the significance of the Message. The Arabic root slm denotes "submission" in peace and understanding; "surrender" to the One Who is the Trustworthy, The Loving, the Oft-returning to Mercy and the Sustainer; "obedience" to the Lord of Glory and Honour, the Merciful and the Compassionate. It denotes "peace" by its principles and God’s Decree with The Just and The Source of Peace; "service" to the One Who is the Preserver of Security; "resignation" to the Most Gracious Ascendant over all; "safety" with The Preserver; "intact" with Him Who is the Granter of Security; "blameless" to the One Who is the Acceptor of Repentance and Forgiving, and finally, "unimpaired" to the One Who is the Incomparably Great, the One having all things in His Charge.

     Islam a word that has been continually reinterpreted over the years gives rise to a diverse literature and a variety of interpretations. It should not be surprising therefore that there arises a variety of confusion, some applied to suit the needs of factional interests. Beyond all that, however, at a metaphorical level its essential meaning may be related to the content of Islam as a whole. In as far as ‘Islam’ refers to religion; it refers to all the systems of religion of God. It denotes not only the Revelations given to the Prophet Muhammad but also to those given to all earlier Prophets who had received the Message calling man to follow the Right Way, the peaceful way of life decreed by His Law and to respond to His Guidance as revealed to them. And when humanity had achieved a suitable level of maturity, God conveyed a grand summation of these Messages in the form of one magnificent and inimitable Message, calling it "Islam". As He stated in His Final Revelation of the Qur'an: "The true Religion with God is Islam" [3:19] This can be regarded as evidence that Muhammad was not “the founder of the of Religion of Islam", as stated by most European commentators, some of whom even as late as the 1970s, would refer mockingly to Islam as “Muhammadanism,”. Muhammad was merely a Messenger chosen by God to deliver His Message.

                 The word Islam contains the following aspects:

Submission: If we take the word "submission" as used by Muslim writers, it is not meant in any passive sense, but denotes a positive act of committing oneself to live within the Divine Laws. The other aspect of this is trying to keep on the right path, the path leading to one's prosperity and welfare, according to His Guidance, and seeking how one can bring one's attitudes and conduct, one's likes and dislikes, into harmony with the Divine Law, which is the just of the international law inspired by God partly correspond with.

                Complete freedom in this world is imaginary. All His creatures respond to His Natural Laws and submit themselves, willingly or unwillingly, to the Divine Law; but man, who has freedom of choice, so often rejects his Divine Law of Guidance. He is the most persistent in wrong-doing and avoids the way of life planned for him. Accordingly, God questions them in the Qur'an "Do they seek for other than the religion of God whiles all creatures in the heavens and on earth have, willingly or unwillingly, bowed to His Decree. To Him shall they all be brought back?"[3:83]

       It is clear that willful submission to the Decree of God is possible only if one can somehow become aware of His Existence and His Law, whereas those who deny of the Truth, who are "not willing" to submit to Him, are still nevertheless, subject to His Spiritual and Natural Decree even, if they are not aware of it. He affirms this in the Qur'an: And before God prostrate themselves, willingly or unwillingly, all that are in the heavens and on earth, as do their shadows in the mornings and the evenings." [13:15] This indicates that all things, the sun, the earth, and all creatures, as including their shadows submitted to His law, over which they have no control, respond to God's Law; His Spiritual Decree in both side, the spiritual for believers and moral for all human, which they judge the intention and the moral action of everyone ; to keep the balance between peace and corruption done by extremely evil one.

    Hence, "submission", in Islam, indicates that man can do no more than what God Decree is granted, so he is given free-will to do what he can voluntarily. There are other things beyond his will and capacity designed by God for the purpose of this life indicate submission unwillingly, but in matter of faith demands the will supported by right intention going forward toward Him and pure action in himself and to others, to divorce all immoral actions. Such as, drink, adultery and faithlessness etc.  

Peace:  Another literal, as well as religious, meaning of the word "Islam" is to be at perfect Peace, meaning to enter into peace in three dimensions.

    The first, inward peace, is the most difficult. All of us realise that the psyche is difficult to fathom "If we know the reason, we can prescribe the remedy, but everything is puzzling and ambiguous. Whilst the soul has desires, passions and emotions, the spirit seeks cognition and belief; and the body needs its nourishment. Islam creates a balance between these demands and makes possible inner peace by purifying the soul of all evil impulses and intentions. On the other hand, it also provides the spirit with belief to enable it to gain spiritual nourishment from its Origin; God. Where a balance exists between demand of the soul, spirit and body peace follows. This is maintained by:

 The outward peace: This world it is asserted is for everyone who uses his rights without depriving others of theirs. Being at peace with others means doing well to them and refraining from doing injury or evil. Islam teaches peaceful coexistence within the widening inner circle of family, neighbours, community and ultimately, the world. All people are descendants of one set of parents, so peace should reign between people as between brothers. We can at least aspire to it regardless of whether we can achieve it or not.

     The third dimension is, upward peace: toward God, Who is pure and only accepts that which is pure. Being at peace with God means obeying His commands. To a person who reaches this stage and submits his will to Divine Law, God is the Source of peace and He grants it to those who live under His Guidance. They are promised prosperity according to their action which is judge spontaneously and pass its its verdict. 

     In all this, there is an interplay between the material and the spiritual; a link is created between Creator and creature. The aim is peace in every direction; one can achieve real peace as a whole only by means of the peace principles, God gave His revelations to maintain the balance not only between the disparate element within each individual but also within society as a whole. "We sent before our Apostles with clear signs and sent down with them the Divine Writ and the Balance (wherewith to weigh right and wrong), that man might stand forth in justice" [57:25]. The Divine Write contain the constitution law and the Divine Decree; the spiritual judgment and the spiritual moral law which thy control human action and intention.     

    The above enquiry into only two aspects of Islam, "submission" and "peace", indicates that Islam is a texture of signification system applied across a vast dimension of beliefs, commitments, duties, social organisations and institutions, both private and public. Its two aspects are:

1)       The principles, which an individual may apply to himself, by ordering his inner self, and

2)        The principles which regulate society as a whole maintaining justice and mutual respect. Hence the term "Islam", has no direct equivalent in English, nor should it be translated or interpreted so as to give it a narrower meaning. As far as Muslims are concerned, it should be used only as the name of the religion of God, which He called all previous religion Islam including Judaism and Christianity. God repeatedly called every prophet And he was from Muslim. He named you Muslim aforetime and in this [22:78].


2.2. The Definition of religion ( Din )


"It is He who has sent His Apostle, with the religion of Guidance and the religion (Din) of Truth, to proclaim it over all religion, And enough is God as a witness"  [Qur'an: 48:28].

     The Arabic word for religion is Din. One of its meanings is "something we owe to God" and it also includes the concept of being "brought back to God". However, the word "religion" in English is not an accurate rendering of the Qura’nic word Din. The way in which the Qur'an uses it depends on the context in which this term is used in different verses. The Qur'an uses it to convey the idea of God's Sovereignty and man's and (all creation's) submission to Him [16:32], or speaks of "the religion of Truth" [9:33], the "Code of Life," or "the Law of God" [12:76], or "the Way of the Life"[(3:83]. It uses "the Day of Judgement" [1:4] to convey the idea of "the Law of Repayment", that is, that man will be rewarded or punished in the light of his responses to the Divine Guidance or his sincerity and faith while on earth [31:32]. Viewed in this context, religion broadens the mental horizon of mankind, for life is not confined to this world alone but continues even beyond it towards eternity.

     Din refers to the total way of life according to the Divine Law or a comprehensive system of ideas and actions, as is affirmed in verse 2:256. Din, Religion, here means a whole system of faith, worship, laws, ethics, politics, education and family life. Asad comments on this verse:  "The term Din denotes both the contents of, and compliance with, a morally binding law." Consequently, it signifies "religion" in the widest sense of this term, extending over all that pertains to its doctrinal contents and their practical implications, as well as to man's attitude toward the object of his worship, thus comprising also the concept of "faith". The rendering of Din as "religion", "faith", "religious law" or "moral law" depends on the context in which the term is used.

     In short, Din means "the true religion of God is Islam" [3:19].  It is to be noted that "Islam" is the name of the religion and that its followers are called "Muslims" not "Muhammadans". Hence, Islam aims at comprehending life in its totality. There is no sphere of human activity to which God in His religion; Islam does not address itself. This leads us to the definition of religious belief in Islam.

2.3 What is Religious Belief in Islam?


"He is the Ever-living; there is no deity save Him: call, then, unto Him (alone) sincere in your belief in Him." [Qur'an 40:65]


     First of all, we have to define the relationship between Islam and din. The Prophet Muhammad made a reference to this when a man came to him and asked:  "What is the best part of Belief?"  He said, "Good morals."3 He also said, "The most perfect of believers in respect of their belief are those whose behaviour is most excellent."4

     The Arabic word for "belief" or "faith" is iman. Islam makes a clear distinction between a person who calls himself a Muslim simply because he has been born into a Muslim society and has thus accepted the religion blindly and unconsciously and one who is a Mua’min; true believer with a profound inner certainty of faith. The Qur'an explains this distinction in the following verse: "The wandering Arabs say, 'We believe': say (unto them,): 'Ye believe not, but rather say, "We are Muslim", for Belief has not yet entered into your hearts."[49:14].  This is because belief is certain knowledge translated by both saying and action, and may increase or decrease according to the spiritual knowledge and action related to it, so not every Muslim is believer and their action are unlike; one for self-interest and deeds of the believer are sincerely for sake of God.

     The most comprehensive definition of Belief consists of three forms, as the Prophet is reported as saying: 1. That confessed by the heart (the spirit) 2. That expressed by the tongue; 3. True actions done according to Islamic principles.5

      Belief, in God according to Islam, is a state of God’s bliss, granted for a pure believer, acquired by virtue of positive action and constructive conceptions, as well as by dynamic and effective measures. When faith is not nourished in practice, it quickly loses its power to motivate a Muslim to good actions to be sincere believers. In this sense, belief may increase or decrease according to sincerest actions done and virtue acquired. God may help believers, if they are truthful, to increase the faith in their hearts by goodwiil and benevolence to His creation: "that they may add faith unto their faith" [48:4].

     The Prophet Muhammad defined Belief as having a number of branches and mentioned more than seventy, the most excellent of which is the declaration that there is no god but God and the humblest of which is the removal of what is harmful from the public path; and modesty is a branch of Faith.6 The commentator Siddiqi said, "What it means is that Faith is not an inert or lifeless thing but dynamic, in the sense that it revolutionises the whole life and thought of man and brings into being numerous healthy changes."7 God take care of all His creation, and anyone corrupted His Peace on earth he is not a believer no matter if he calls himself so. 


2.4. Who is a True Muslim?


"Behold, unto Him who brought into being the heavens and the earth have I turned my face, having turned away from all that is false; and I am not of those who ascribe divinity to aught beside Him." [Qur'an 6:79]


                A Muslim could be called outwardly a Muslim, or true Muslim; sincere believer, is an individual who chooses to believe, to acknowledge his Creator, accepts Him as his real God, honestly and scrupulously submits to His Laws and Injunctions and follows His Code; spiritually, morally and socially.

     According to the Qur'an, a Muslim is one who spontaneously and willingly resigns himself and his reasoning to God and thereby professes Islam. A non Muslim is also charged with living according to the Will of God, as we pointed out earlier. A Muslim believes in the Prophets of God, particularly those mentioned by the three monotheistic religions, i.e., Judaism, Christianity and Islam, and makes no distinction between them except in the belief that the Message as received by the last Prophet, Muhammad, is combine the previous revelations and is the most comprehensive and final form of God's Message to humanity.

     In Islam, mere acknowledgement of these tenets will not suffice. A Muslim is not a good Muslim unless he carries out in practice the instructions given by the Prophet as ordained by God. Islam is not only a belief but also depends on a practice. Faith, practise, worship and dealing with others justly - each element complements the others; they are like links in a chain: if one link is broken, the whole chain is worthless. A Muslim, according to a saying of the Prophet, exists on three levels:

1.  One who is a Muslim only extrinsically. He utters with his mouth, not from his heart, "I am a Muslim", or he or she has an Islamic name because he was born to a "Muslim"; he is proud that he inherited it, yet makes no effort to understand Islam, convert himself to Islam as an adult and lives according to God commandments.

2.  In the second category is one who confesses with his heart as well as say with his mouth that he is a believer in the Oneness of God and will do no harm to others, whilst privately however, he does bad things. His problem is that he cannot translate the true belief into moral action. Because he does not follow the Straight Path or have no intention and determination to do so, God does not guide this individual, since he finds no firmness of purpose in himself and he has no true knowledge of the interplay between Islam and belief, so outwardly Muslim namely not in full practice would not be considered by God who demands a genuine devotion as a whole.

3.  In the third category is he who believes and translates his belief into true action. He does no harm to himself or to others by any means. He walks the Straight Path with one aim - living in God consciousness translates his true belief into authentic deeds well known morally by established moral standard.

     The Qur'an itself classifies people into three categories:-.

1. Those on the right hand who believe in God and attaining to what is perfectly right;

2. Those on the left hand who disbelieve and are losing themselves in evil deeds; and

3. The foremost in strong belief that have devoted themselves to sincerity and right action in all direction of life. [56:7-10].

    It is by no means easy to state with confidence the true relationship between Muslims and Islam. Asad expresses the view that, "Present-day Muslim life appears to be very far from the ideal possibilities given in the religious teaching of Islam. Whatever, in Islam… had been progress and movement, had turned, among the Muslims, into indolence and stagnation... I realise that the one and only reason for the social and cultural decay of the Muslims consists in the fact that they have gradually ceased to follow the teaching of Islam in spirit. Islam is still there, but it is a body without a soul."8 Muslim mostly follow the spiritual side; worshiping God outwardly, when they are in the mosque look like angels, but outside trend their self-interest, separating His private commandments from the public policy.     

     Some non-Muslims try to explain the dichotomy between Islam and the way many Muslims live today without examining the relationship between the two. Islam is the religion of God for all human stands by its principle which many nations applying some of them through inspiration but, there is no one nation submits their application according to His revelation.

      Many Western scholars seem in effect to regard precept and practise as synonymous and judge Islam by what they see of Muslims or those who claim to be a true Muslim and cause corruption by name of Islam. Islamic doctrine is clear, nothing is hidden, and any one can judge the behaviour of Muslin and their relationship to doctrine of Islam. Islam itself needs to be understood on its own terms. No human being has the right to represent or speak on behalf of God, His Religion of Islam layout in the Qur’an, but if has been interpreted mistakenly, it is not to blame Islam in other word God. The Qur'an itself remain the definitive book of God and the validity of its principle, which lead the way to the prosperity of this life. So the Muslims are guilty of misrepresenting God’s laws in particularly in public rules. We find though, both in the past and in the present, many writer, speaker people, particularly non-Muslims, who give their ideas about ‘Islam’ by saying little about Islam, but everything about Muslims as an example of Islam. Muslims are not representing God religion as long as not applying His universal rules. Not matter if individual submit their application to the ritual and moral side, no body can claim that he is true Muslim inwardly, outwardly and upwardly as a whole, but every believer doing his best and accuse other of not fulfilling God’s rules in public affairs.      


2.5.                   What Islam Teaches?


"The most Gracious has taught this Qur'an and set up the Balance (justice). Transgress not the Balance and weigh with justice, and fall not short in the Balance." [Qur'an 55:1-9]

   God revealed His religion to guide human to the right way of this life and the next. Muslims believe that the unique feature of Islam is that it sees the human being as a whole, trying in all ways to build up a relationship between the three components of man, - body, soul and spirit. These should function as a unity, delicately balanced and moving in one direction within the Straight Path., in public life, to develop a community of true believers; to create relationship with nonbelievers to live in peace on earth under His umbrella.

     Islam makes no distinction between the sacred and the secular, the spiritual and the material. Islam differs from others, as A. Azzam points out, by "being a universal submission to God, having no concept of a particular covenant or a specially chosen people. It also differs from the Christian view of there being a Kingdom of God in Heaven and a separate kingdom of Caesar on earth. And it differs from other religions, such as Buddhism and Hinduism."9 Materialistic systems meanwhile have totally ignored the spiritual and moral side of life. Islam asserts that true spiritual life is realised by living consciously in this world, devoting all one's energies to living life on a healthy moral foundation. The pure spiritual life is the basis ground for social worldly life, the belief is devotion and good deeds in privet and in public.

     Islam does not promote asceticism, but is the embodiment rather of an all embracing code which covers all aspects of life. It is an attitude, a pattern of thought and behaviour, enjoining right thinking and right action, a practical system of God covering the whole range of human activity, private and public. Not a single moment passes without there being a religious ruling or guidance pertaining to it, directing one to the fairest system is Straight Path, leading to further development. Islam, in other words is no mere creed, but a whole way of life in action. It stands not for life-denial, but for life fulfillment and development of human affairs, but unfortunately the Muslims not in practicing these rules to lead the way to the perfect life.

      Islam deals not only with the nature of the relationship between the Creator and His Creation; it also defines the relationship of man to himself, create balance between his soul; self and body, and to his fellow men believers and nonbelievers who granted freedom of belief by God, and to affairs of life in general. It provides a spiritual practice, legal system, socially, economically, ethically and a moral framework within which to establish and regulate human institutions and balance relationships in three categories and schemes to fulfill the life, they are:- 


2.5.1 Muslim's Attitude Towards God.

     Firstly. Islam teaches the Muslim the need for permanent prayerfulness in all the manifold actions of life, directly, without intermediaries, between man and His Lord. This lack of intermediaries is unique to build direct relationship. God considers that every virtuous action which has been sincerely performed for His sake is an act of worship for which men will be rewarded. That is to say that for the true Muslim, all his actions becomes one continuous act of purification. Believer stands for complete devotion and obedience to Divine Law, with loyalty and sincerity, to truth and virtue, as it invites man to commit himself exclusively to his Creator, to harmonise his will with the Will of God and His Divine Decree, Who commend:

      "I have not created the invisible beings and mankind to any end other than that they may (know and) worship Me." [51:56]. Asad comments on this verse: "The innermost purpose of the creation of all rational beings is their cognition of the Existence of God, and hence, their conscious willingness to conform their own existence to whatever they may perceive of His Will and Plan, and it is this twofold concept of cognition and willingness that gives the deepest meaning to what the Qur'an describes as worship; it is designed as an instrument for the inner development of the worshipper, who, by the act of his conscious self-surrender to the all-prevailing Creative Will, may hope to come closer to an understanding of that Will and, thus, closer to God Himself." This is attained not only by worship, but by following the code of social Life which guides man's steps on the right path, both are to fulfill the inner development of the soul to be above its desires and the spirit to have balance faith and mind:


2.5.2 Muslim's Attitude Towards Self.


     God provides a comprehensive personal code designed to balance life and maintain dignity, more so than any other system partly inspired. He is so concerned with the equilibrium of life. Inspires hope in ones heart, encourages one to live and strive for the achievement of higher ideals and to remain steadfast against evil and oppression, helps one to live at peace with oneself, and enjoins one to love and respect others, especially ones parents, spouse and to honour old folk and others no matter what race or religion they are. 

     A true Muslim’s first duty towards himself is to seek continuously for knowledge through reading, observation, reflection, discovering and acting. It is the basic component of belief. Belief in Islam is knowledge; certain knowledge related to true belief. The first word command is to read, to seek knowledge, to understand, to belief. The Prophet made clear this obligation when he said, "The search for knowledge is the duty of every Muslim, male or female."

      A Muslim should also maintain ceaseless vigil over his desires, and to accomplish them in legitimate way, so that his life may become a source only of good. Thus, Islam's major tenets and detailed rules of conduct, profoundly affect psychological stability, and shift attitudes and behaviour towards the Right Path.

2.5.3 Muslim's Attitude Towards Others


    God offers a complete freedom of belief and system of relationship between believers and others with the aim of conferring dignity and honour on mankind. It is designed to eliminate oppression, injustice and all kinds of social malaise by applying His Divine law in every aspect of life. The spiritual functions inward and upward to achieve an ideal developed human believer can contribute to social development in all spheres of life: educational, economic, public, cultural, international relations and war and peace.

      God has always presented Islam as embodying the ultimate Truth from Him and scientific explanations prove that it is related not only to the truth but to the whole Truth as prescribed by Him. Its originality stands in justice to create equilibrium I human life above all the ideologies that God inspired human or have invented to secure the life for everyone.

       God care mainly bout the life of the human to save them from corruption, either done by individual to himself or by others, oppression or killing each others. Life insecure if lift to human who has desires to have power over other people, no matter if he shade blood to fulfill his potential needs.   


2.6. Islam and the Primordial Norm


"So set thy face steadily and truly to faith: God's Original upon which He patterned mankind. There is no changing God's Creation, that is the right religion, but most men know it not."  [Qur'an:  30:30]


     God revealed His religion which is compatible with what he originated in the spirit. Islam is considered Din al' fitrah, "the religion of natural disposition", because of its conformity with human nature. Each element in nature observes Divine Law for its own development. Its tenets and injunctions are formed for man's progress in this world and in the World to come. Islam asks that we follow our pure natural dispassion, if not corrupt by social life and make our will comply with the Will of God to have prosperity in spiritual and social life, and grant freedom to everyone to accept His religion or to rejected by following a traditional religion. He made clear fore everyone to have a relationship with Him or to live in darkness of faith. He says: "Let there be no compulsion in religion; Truth stands out clear from error; whoever rejects evil and believes in God has grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold, that never breaks. And God hears and knows all things." [2.256]. Commenting on this verse, Yusuf Ali said, "Compulsion is incompatible with religion, because:

1)  Religion depends upon faith and will, and these would be meaningless if induced by force;

2)  Truth and error have been so clearly shown up by the Mercy of God that there should be no doubt in the minds of any persons of good will as to the fundamentals of faith:

3) God’s Protection is continuous, and His Plan is always to lead us from the depths of darkness into the clearest light."

    The concept of God in Islam is from within the intellect and it creates a harmony in the psyche of the believer. Its principles safeguard the human life by absolute justice inwardly and outwardly under the control of the upward quest from within the psyche. 


2.6.1 Islam and the need of the Psyche


     Everyone has experience of the spiritual world around or within himself. Let us look briefly at the conception about this that exists in God teaching. There is a definition of "spirit" in general, which says: "Spirit has been conceived in many forms of religions as a supernatural power or unseen deity thought to have control over the destinies of man."11

     God defines the invisible beings as angels who are entrusted with the care of man and have been given power over spirit and soul. According to the Qur'an, God, when He created Adam, breathed of His Spirit into him. Both the spiritualist position, and what might be called authentic religion, consider that man has three elements: spirit, soul and body,12 that the body encases the soul and spirit, the soul encases the spirit, and at death the body dies, but the soul and spirit live on. The soul, control the living entity it seems, is more refined than the body, and serves the spirit in the next life, just as the body and soul serve the spirit in this life. Animals are believed to have souls but not spirits.

     The possibility of "spirit possession" (of a low spirit entering the body of a living person) is also considered to be real.  Possession is by ignorant and undeveloped spirits, but they are not evil; no being is intrinsically evil. Each person can choose what spirits he will associate with, and they can harm him only in the sense that "unfitting companions" can harm him.

     The Qur'an states that God blessed the soul with the ability to distinguish sin from piety and who has kept it pure shall be blessed, whilst he who has corrupted it shall be ruined: "Consider the human self, (soul: nafs) and how it is formed in accordance with what it is meant to be, and how it is imbued with moral feelings as well as with consciousness of God! To a happy state shall indeed attain, he who causes the (soul) to grow in purity, and truly lost is he who buries it (in darkness)" [91:7-9]. The disbeliever clouds the spirit and the soul from enlightenment and the ability to realise their destiny.  

      Man’s ability to rise to great spiritual heights or to fall into utter immorality is characteristic of human nature. The goal of Islam is to maintain purity of soul thus enabling success, prosperity and a profoundly spiritual life in closeness to God through His Teaching.

     This obligation to purify the soul and strengthen the spirit has, as one might expect, a momentous effect on worldly life. Islam enjoins a complete code of belief, of which the core is belief in the Oneness of God. After the Divinity, Lord, Sovereign and Sustainer of the Universe, comes belief in His Angels, His Prophets, His Scripture as revealed to man, and the hereafter. This last establishes continuity between this life and the next. Islam covers one's relationship with God on the one hand and one's actions in the world on the other.

     The Muslim’s main duty is to observe the daily prayers, which serve to maintain the bond between his spirit and its Origin. Then comes fasting, which turns attention from the body and refreshes the spirit. Giving in charity (zakah) means purifying the soul of its love for worldly and material things, while pilgrimage to Makkah is a departure from one's environment where one has committed sin to the Holy Place where the Qur'an was revealed in order to make a final Covenant with God to do right and avoid wrong. These principles can provide nourishment to the human spirit and a balance which harmonises soul and body with spirit and disposes of any contradiction or conflict between them.



{Between Abbara and Dina expressing the Islamic view whilst Badr and Charles the opposite side of the argument}


"What, Do they desire another religion than God's, and to Him has whose is in the heavens and the earth, willingly or unwillingly, and to Him shall be returned? "[Qur'an 3:83].


2.7.1. The Characteristics of Islam.


Charles:   Could we define Islam?

Abbara:   God created human being and granted them with moral sense and freedom to administrate their life, in addition to that, He makes continuous appraisal to their action and pass His judgment to keep the balance between peace and corruption. But mostly they are in adoration to their own desire which jeopardize their life. Therefore, God revealed the Massage of peace to free them from strife within themselves and between them, to secure their life in general, and to safeguard the life of true believers by submitting their application to His comprehensive rules, which guarantee their developments spiritually and in worldly affairs, but unfortunately there is no ingle community of believers to provide that evidence. There are believers who apply God’s rules in private situation not in public affair as a whole. 

Charles:  Could you define Islam in more detail as submission, obedience and peace…?

Abbara:   As we pointed out Islam is the name of the religion. All the terms concerning it are somehow related to its various aspects, but this does not mean that they should all be taken literally. All these terms are conceived by the human mind while, in the Qur'an, God says simply that "The religion with God is Islam" [3:19]. Religion has a comprehensive meaning related to all aspects of life spiritually, lawfully and its affairs as well as to God. He revealed it to guide man to the Right Way in his temporary life on earth, so that he can use it for his spiritual and worldly development to fit himself for the next world, rather than living blindly and aimlessly and going astray.

    Muslims and non-Muslims have concentrated on its literal meaning, although of course the literal meaning is related to it some how.

Dina:  In other words, the Islamic religion can be defined very simply as obedience to the God’s Law, natural and spiritual which protects those whom submitted their life to His rules; from passing His verdict on those who increase corruption in earth.

Badr:  Are human beings obliged to obey God whether they are Muslims or not?

Abbara: Of course as we said, He inspired His Law to all human, many non-Muslim they applying partly His law in public affairs more than Muslims, while Muslims concentrated on private devotion.

     The Divine Decree has three dimensions: Firstly, the natural law which covers the material world, i.e., the earth and the rest of universe. Secondly, the Divine Decree which controls the relationship between man and man, and man and God. Thirdly, the Spiritual Moral Decree planted in the mind of every human being: the ability to judge what is right and what is wrong, to discriminate between good and evil.

      God revealed His Divine Decree; His Law, spiritual; moral, and legal to keep a balance of justice among mankind in this life, while He left His judgment in regard believe and disbelieve to next life.

Badr: Consequently, you indicate that God does not care about the faith of a person more than his moral action in this life.  

Dina: His Decree has to do with peace of human life. God requires self-aware actions in private as well as in public, in conformity with His Revelation so that no aspect of life is untouched by Divine Authority. Islam is a religious belief indispensable to our spirit. Its principles sustain both individual existence and society as a whole.

     Professor Montet says: "Islam is a religion that is essentially rationalistic in the widest sense of the term. Its simplicity and the clearness of its teaching are certainly among the most obvious forces at work. A creed so precise, so stripped of all theological complexities and consequently so accessible to the ordinary understanding might be expected to possess and does indeed possess, a marvellous power over the consciences of men."13  

Charles: Islam means peace, but events in the Muslim world seem to contradict this!

Abbara: It is the God remedy of egoism to change Muslim into altruism, but if  Muslim does not submit their application to His medication to cure themselves, so we cannot blame the medicine but those who does not applying it precisely.

      Islam is related to "peace" in the sense of "justice". But "error is committed by misguided thinking on the legitimacy of the Holy War"14 Since Islam covers all aspects of life, it is easy to take some principle and apply it inappropriately, intentionally or otherwise to justify one’s egoism. Such justifications may only in fact be twisting Islamic principles, into Muslim principle and call it wrongly Islamic and taken it by non-Muslim as Islamic. This misunderstanding takes place and gives access to non-believers to demonstrate their propaganda to satisfy their hatred to God’s commandment and to be allied with ill-being.

Badr:  Since Islam involves "submission to the Will of God," it may be said that Islam is a form of authoritarianism…

Abbara:  Instead of saying "the Will of God", you could if you prefer say "the Divine Law", since the word "will" can cause confusion. Because there are rules and codes of conduct, non-Muslims sometimes see them as authoritarian and say that they interfere with individual freedom. But do not forget that for the sake of your own freedom or safety, you may have to put limits on the freedom of others. The matter is not one of individual self-interest, but of maintaining a general social balance. No one should have freedom to interfere with others. There is a great difference between submission to the will of other people and submission to the rules of God, who is the Lord of all, and everyone submits will to Gods Decree willingly or unwillingly, it is beyond his control and Gods judgment pass over him.

Charles: I have come across a theory that in the beginning Muhammad did not call the Faith 'Islam' but "Hanifa", with reference to the religion of Abraham, and that he did not ascribe Divinity to God later he dropped the label and adopted the term "Islam".

Abbara:  The word Hanifa or Haniffiya is mentioned in the Qur'an ten times, mostly in connection with the Prophet Abraham. The word Hanifa denotes "to stand firmly on one side, to leave a false religion and turn to the right". By extension, it means "The upright man". It was not the Prophet Muhammad who gave the name "Islam" to the religion but God Himself and He gives the title to Abraham “Muslim”, He says. "Abraham in truth was not a Jew, nor a Christian, but he was a one pure of faith “Hanifa”; Muslim [3:67].

    If you put your theory to the average Muslim, he or she will be amazed, because repeatedly, at the beginning of every prayer a Muslim says: "I have turned my face towards Him Who created the heavens and the earth, as Hanifa, one by nature upright." [6:79]. Referring to Islam as the practise of uprightness deviating from all immorality into the Straight Path of moral justice. Please do not believe all you hear from misguided Orientalists, or some of what you see among those who call themselves Muslims. Gibb says: "Islam never identified itself with Arabs, although at times Arabs have identified themselves with it." 15 Unfortunately the behaviour of some Arabs has not benefited Islam but stand between Islam and non-Mules who see Islam through Muslims performance.

Dina: Islam is not associated with any one person no matter if he claims he is true believer according to his way of thinking, not to God’s Judgment. Islam was chosen by God, not just for Muhammad and Muslims, nor for a particular people but for all mankind, as God stated, "The religion with God is Islam" [3:19]. It is universal and eternal religion of the humanity, which they have no alternative choice to solve their existed problems without God resolution.

     Writers in Europe call Muslims "Muhammadans", implying that they worship Muhammad, or the founder of Islam. God chooses the name Islam and they choose the servant of Islam; Muslims strongly object to the label because they obviously, reject any such suggestion, because they believe he was only a Messenger and had no status of divinity. When the words "Islam" and "Muslim" are used in European cultures, its often supposed they refer to Arab religion not to God's Religion. In fact only 15% of Muslims are Arabs and not submitting the application of Islam, in spite that called themselves; Islamic country or state.

Charles: But most writers of recent books realise this fact, and Muslims are no longer identified as solely or principally Arab.

Dina: The problem, as Dr. Maurice Bucaille says: "So many false judgements based on inaccurate ideas have indeed been made about it that today it is very difficult to form an exact notion of the reality of Islam. The totally erroneous statements made about Islam in the West are sometimes the result of ignorance, and sometimes systematic denigrations. The most serious of all the untruths told about it are, however, those dealing with facts, for while mistaken opinions are excusable, the presentation of facts running contrary to the reality is not. The fact that people utter such untruths helps to give a false impression of the Qur'an and Islam." 16

Charles:  A great change has taken place in the last few years, though, and I quote a document produced by the office for Non-Christian Affairs at the Vatican. As we read in the third edition of this study (1970), this new position calls for a "revision of our attitude towards it and a critical examination of our prejudices..." We should first set about progressively changing the way our Christian brothers see it. We must clear away the "out-dated image inherited from the past or distorted by prejudice and slander..." and "recognise the past injustice towards the Muslims for which the West, with its Christian education, is to blame."17

Badr:  May I quote what Charles the Prince of Wales says in this regard: I believe wholeheartedly that the link between Islam and the West matters more today than ever before, because the degree of misunderstanding between the Islamic and Western worlds remains dangerously high, and because the need for the two to live and work together in our increasingly interdependent world has never been greater... The depressing fact is that, despite the advance in technology and mass communications of the second half of the twentieth century,… misunderstanding between Islam and the West continues…  I pray this might at least be the case in which Islam and the West could join forces for the sake of our common humanity.18 


2.7.2. What is the Teaching of Islam?


"We sent aforetime our Apostles with Clear Signs and sent down with them the Book and the Balance (of Right and Wrong) that men May stand forth in justice." [Qur'an 57:25]


Dina:  Muslims believe in Islam’s validity because it was revealed by God to safeguard humanity. If we examine each Islamic principle, we will find that together they solve all human problems. Frithjof Schuon observed that: "Islam puts everything in its proper place and treats it according to its own nature; collectively man if envisaged, not through the distorting perspective of a mystical idealism which is in fact inapplicable, but taking account of the natural laws which regulate each order and are, within the limits of each order, willed by God. Islam is the perspective of certainty and of the nature of things, rather than of miracle and idealist improvisation."19

Charles: He may be right, but surely these principles were not originated by the Prophet Muhammad but borrowed from Christianity and Judaism. For example, he preached in Makkah for more than half the period of his Mission (610-622 C.E..). No public principles were presented at that time, but only private matters, such as belief in one God. When he emigrated to Madinah and had contact with Jews he started to formulate the Islamic principles in a new form, incorporating the idea of the public good and utility. So Muslims should not be unduly proud of their religion, as its source was Christianity and Judaism. They should not stress too much the uniqueness of Islamic teaching.

Abbara:   To answer your point, I would say:

1) Yes, he spent about thirteen years in Makkah, not by choice, but to establish the faith in the hearts of believers. Faith in Islam should not be based on mere words, but on spiritual education and its development. It took about thirteen years to take root in the hearts of believers and be reflected in their action. Belief in Islam has degrees corresponding to one's knowledge and actions. The Qur'an says: "God will exalt those who believe among you, and those who have knowledge, to high degrees." [58:11]. It initiates the total development of the spirit. God teaches us how difficult it is to establish the Faith, and to challenge all false ideologies in the mind or social diseases.

2) Yes, there are relationships between the principles in the Qur'an and those in the Bible, for the simple reason that they are from the same source, that is, God. Many of the arguments in the Qur'an challenge Jews and Christians on the basis of the earlier teachings they received.

3) If the Prophet had tried to copy these principles, he would have created confusion, through failure to discriminate between them. When a student does a Ph.D thesis he cannot give accurate ideas about a subject across the whole field. Islamic principles are more accurate and comprehensive than the previous Messages. Teachings are lost because man colours to serve his own interest, but in Islam, man has no chance to do this except by twisting the meaning of a verse in the Qur'an or by putting forward an unauthentic or doubtful Hadith; saying of the Prophet, to support wrong  interpretation.

Charles: Islam started in Makkah. Its aims were limited e.g.,"...and warn thy clan, thy nearest of kin" [27:214]. But when Muhammad emigrated to Madinah, his aim was to teach all Arabs. Once all the Arabs had become Muslims, he announced that his Message was universal. Messengers were sent to neighbouring kings, rulers and emperors - but none of them accepted Islam because they doubted its authenticity. Hence the Message was not proclaimed from the beginning as universal but only after it was accepted in Arabia, when his Muhammad’s aspirations and ambitions went further. Its principles, developed up in the desert, could not have been suitable for emperors, even of that time fourteen centuries ago. They are even less suitable for the modern age; yet Muslims still insist that this desert religion is capable of solving the problems of human beings while other scientific efforts have failed.

Abbara: Well, no doubt every message, according to the natural law, started from a central point, and then it spreads across. The Message was rejected not because it was invalid main beliefs, but because it changed the whole system of worship. Because Islam put everybody on the same footing, the stronger rejected the Message to protect their position of authority. So you are right if you say that rulers rejected Islam because its principles did not correspond with their self-interest.

                The Message was not under the control of Muhammad, to announce as he wished, but it was God's plan and scheme of life according to His Will.

                You suggest the principles of the desert cannot be suitable for a civilized country. How then did it spread over to the Persian and Byzantine empires? Such a movement simply proved that Islam was not from Muhammad, but from the Lord of Muhammad and He is still the same Lord, both of the desert and of the civilised people, and human development gains From God by inspiration and rejected His complete code of the revelation. So Islamic civilisation, it means the best of civilised rules, not Muslim rules or modernised western rules; For example, modern societies have made legal such abnormalities as homosexuality, but after a while, they realise that it is wrong to do so. So they fall between two stools: they cannot prevent people from practising it and they cannot solve the problems caused by it. According to God civilised principles, it is forbidden to take a step in the wrong direction.

Dina:   I would like to comment on the verse "and warn your kin". This implies that it is the duty of every Muslim to enjoin good and forbid evil, particularly with those who are nearest to him and especially to those who recognise his authority, such as his children and close relatives. So this verse creates a collective responsibility for all members of society. Without guidance children may adopt their own ways of thinking, divert judgment and create more and more corruption for themselves and society whilst in the name of sacred freedom they are not allowed to do so.

Charles:  If Islam is capable of doing well, why do Muslims not use it to solve their own problems?  Muslims are going backwards because of their religion, while all other people in the world are improving and developing. If you look at two countries, one Muslim and its neighbour non-Muslim, you find the non-Muslim one is more advanced, even if they are of the same race.

Abbara: If a doctor prescribes a psychological and mental medicine but the patient refuses to take it, we cannot say that the doctor is not capable and the medicine does not cure. In its early years Islam proved superior civilization in every respect of life. Justice was the aim of every Muslim, from the rulers to the ruled. Later, however, Muslims, particularly rulers, merely Muslim but did not practise their public duties. From then on, Muslim degenerated; rightful rulers were removed and power put into the hands of egotistic ones who twisted the public Islamic principles. Most Muslim rulers went their own ways rather than follow the way of God, furthermore, they are allied to those diverted from the right way.

     Muslims are going backwards not because of God principles but because they have strayed from the teachings of God, while non-Muslim apply some of His teaching through His inspiration. Good believers would isolate themselves from political life and follow instead a mystical path which they are invented it, of supporting the rulers by falsification the main beliefs, while others reject Islamic principles outright to save themselves from unjust rulers, or begin to look on religion as a private matter. Islamic principles became a form without life, rather than the essence of life itself. However it is still a part of life for believers, lighting their way through darkness.

Badr: You indicate there are some believers who practice their faith; why did not God protect them?  On the other hand, are they good believers in God but part of their action doe not correspond with their belief. As you know, the Satan always try to make alliance with religious leaders, so he can created more corruption on earth?

Abbara: Sincerity to God not anyone in position to make judgements, God knows the best. And He indicates: And most of them do not even believe in God without [also] ascribing divine powers to other beings beside Him [12:106] God designated His security in particular for those who are sincere not only in their belief but in their accurate actins which harm nobody by name of God, who stated: Those who believe, and have not confounded their belief with evildoing to them belongs the true security; they are rightly guided [6:82], belief is not egoistic judgements on behalf of God who warned His Prophet that judgment is for God  alone so be not  thou one of the ignorant [6:35]            

Badr: But why Muslims are humiliated by non-Muslims? Why God not support them?

Abbara:  To God belong all power, For, Gods are all the forces of the heaven and the earth [48:7]. So the wrongdoer suppresses the evil doer to keep the balance between right and wrong, at the end when the wrongdoer became more evil also He causes them into destruction. The survival is to those who secure do justice more than other and do not spread corruption in His land.

Dina: I would like to return to previous discussion, Society's ills cannot be cured without each of us taking the specific medicine prescribed by our Creator.

Charles: The medicine is made especially for Muslims, to cure their disease, so why do they not take it themselves? They are in greater need of it than others. But some Muslims want to export it, even though nobody is interested in it.

Abbara:  Admittedly, Muslims follow the private side and do not apply public principles. For your second point, about exporting it, Muslims consider that they are duty bound to call others to the Truth in a good manner, but they should call others not by their words but by their supreme action wanted by God to impress others. You say that others are not interested in it. Perhaps you are correct because Islamic principles define duty which contradicts with the self-interest desires of non believers. Some Muslims follow their own way of life as a matter of course rather than God's Guidance.

Dina:  I wish to add that some Muslims will not observe Islamic principles as a whole. These approaches keep no balance between the person and the collective. Man is unjust to himself; he follows his self-interest and selfish desires and neglects his intellect, and his spirit. A Muslim may observe his prayers but may not also observe the other principles to do justice to himself and others or at least, paying his due to the poor.  Why Islamic Principles?


"God sent Messengers with glad tidings and warnings and with them He sent the Book in Truth to judge between people in matters wherein they differed." [Qur'an 2:213]


Dina:  Jamal al-Din Al-Afghani says: "Actually, the principles of the Islamic religion are not restricted to man; to the truth, or to considering the soul only in a spiritual contact which is concerned with the relationship between this world and the one to come. There is more besides: Islamic principles are concerned with the relationship between the believers, they explain the law in general and in detail, they define the executive power which administers the law, they determine sentences and limit their conditions; also, they are concerned with the unique goal that the holder of power ought to be the most submissive of men to the rules regulating that power which he gains neither by heritage nor inheritance, nor by virtue of his race, tribe, material strength or wealth."20

    In other words, Islamic principles produce balanced action, which is closely related to justice, not only to Muslim but for all, as well as virtue for its own sake or for the sake of God as a duty.

Charles:  The objective of religion is to build up a relationship with God. On the other hand, it is a private matter, which has no effect on the ethical principles which spring from the mind as the philosophers point out, and not the heart, as the religious claim. So why do we need an authoritarian principle?

Abbara:  We agree with those philosophers who discuss conduct in three dimensions: the self, others, and the relationship between self and others. Islam adds the mainspring to these three dimensions, on which is the relationship between man and God. This relationship pivots on faith and sincerity; no intercession is needed. Islam considers that an intermediary can cut the spiritual link between God and the individual and undermines inspiration and moral guidance. If this happens and we follow our own desires, we are led into wrong-doing and God withdraws His Guidance, as He states in the Qur'an: "And who could be more astray than he who follows (but) his own likes and dislikes, without any Guidance from God?" [28:50].

Charles:  Doesn’t this indicate a prejudice against those who do good but do not believe in God?

Abbara:  God, the Merciful, created the capacity in the human heart for good. Even evil people, rightly motivated, will do well, when the motivation is pleasure, pride, ostentation or some other personal benefits.

Dina:  Islam sees things as a whole. Philosophers can reach one side of truth; they give opinions from outside, that cannot be accepted by the majority, while God’s commandments emerge from inside and comprehensive touch every thought and action.

Charles:  The weakness of ethical systems expounded by philosophers is not that they are totally devoid of truth but that they usually regard some particular aspect of truth as the whole truth. Nevertheless, their conclusions are more logical than religious ones, which calls for emotion and God-fearing.

Abbara:  Philosophers, in their limited approaches, neglect the soul, the inclinations and emotions, which from a religious perspective are all-embracing. The Qur'an presents a comprehensive teaching which appeals repeatedly to reason and intellect. This is for those who are educated and have developed their reason, but those who have not reached such a standard need emotions, reward and punishment to put them right.

Dina:  Philosophy seems to make no progress; it appears to go around in circles, endlessly debating old problems about the mind in general and certain values in particular, with no obvious objective. They consider only this life, while religion considers both this life and the life to come which depends on the on spiritual development of mind which depends on pure actions.

Charles:  Nonetheless, we cannot ignore the functions of philosophy. It helps to clear the mind and focus on the point we are looking for.

Dina:  The intention of philosophers is to create an ethical system derived from abstract notions drawn from common experience. But all of them fail to induce human beings to follow the path of truth and virtue and abstain from falsehood. They also fail to build up a sound and healthy social life. None of these philosophical theories are put to practice in real life. One theory merely leads to another theory endlessly.

Charles:  Philosophers rely on conformity to moral law, while religions depend on belief. Nowadays, we can see the evil done by those so called Muslim believers more evils then by those so called nonbelievers. 

Abbara:  Believing in God is not a title given as a Muslim, we can judge belief outwardly by his right action and God judge his intention. True belief gives a Muslim's life a certain consistency and momentum and provides moral and intellectual resources, a sort of spiritual stamina. Belief urges true believers to goodness in every direction. A belief firmly rooted in the heart as well as in the mind is the real force behind the moral law of Islam. This faith alone can keep a Muslim on the Straight Path of virtue not merely by theory but righteous deed.

Dina: Islam does not discriminate between unrelated ideas and incoherent modes of conduct. Philosophers have not been able to agree on an ethical standard, while Islam is a well-ordered system, a consistent whole, resting on a definite set of clear-cut postulates. Its major tenets, as well as detailed rules of conduct, are all derived from, and logically connected with, its basic principles. It urges the people not only to practise virtue, but also to eradicate vice. This is the duty, not only of teachers and parents, but also of all members of society, in order to safeguard man's destiny as well. Its principle is to maintain human nature on a moral basis, physically and spiritually.  What is Human Nature?

"God created you of dust then of a sperm-drop, and then He made you pairs. No female bears or brings forth, save with His knowledge: [Qur'an 35:11]

Abbara:  God has revealed His religion to answer three basic questions: What is human nature?  Why this life?  And what is man's destiny?  This is an old story that keeps going on and on.

Charles:  Philosophers cannot agree on the answers to these questions, they have different opinions about the nature of man; particularly since Darwin, the idea of evolution has become increasingly important for anthropologists.

Abbara: Islam teaches that God created the first pair of human beings and that all of us come from that first couple. It also teaches that humanity is the noblest creation of God. Our qualities derive from the spirit of our Creator, and these noble qualities are innate to every child in every race. No people can claim that they are superior to others, except, as God says, those of right conduct. "The noblest of you in the Sight of God is the one who is most deeply conscious of Him." [49:13] and acts according to what is being said By God, not according to poorly consciousness.  

Dina:  Do not forget that the Qur'an also says that God created man in the fairest form, then, according to his conduct brought him down, to the lowest of the low: "Verily, we created man in the best confirmation and thereafter we reduced him to the lowest of the low, excepting only such as attain to faith and do good works." [95:4-6] Asad comments that "this statement does not in any way imply that all human beings have the same 'best confirmation' in respect of their bodily or mental endowments; it implies simply that, irrespective of his natural advantages or disadvantages, each human being is endowed with the ability to make, for him, the best possible use of his inborn qualities and of the environment to which he is exposed. This ‘reduction to the lowest of the low' is a consequence of man's betrayal - in other words, his corruption of his original, positive disposition: that is to say, a consequence of man's own doings and omissions."

Charles:  We can choose to be above the angels or below the devils, or to be similar to an animal, following our own desires, or to strike a balance between these and be a human being. These categories do not make sense, if God created us honourable, in perfect form. There is a marked contrast between man and other creatures; they cannot be compared. Do you have any authentic evidence one way or the other?

Abbara:  Well, I do not think there is authentic evidence, but usually theologians preach about these possibilities, so as to encourage us to aim to the higher level as angels, and not to be evil like Satan or to follow our desires like animals. Nevertheless, we have free will; therefore we bear responsibility for our actions, whether good or evil. Satan appeals in particular to egotistical believers to feel self-important or God’s agent acting by His name, and easily influences evil behaviour. Satan is an invisible creature and acts on our soul or spirit and mind, trying to control our faculties through it, or perhaps through friends whom he inspires. Others merely follow their desires, whilst true believers have to struggle between the two alternatives.

Badr:  Are human beings like angels, devils or animals?

Dina:  We are all human beings but we each have different qualities. Behaviour unpredictable, sometimes fallen to the level of Satan after committing an evil act and at other times like an angel after a righteous act. And if has behaved wrongly, maybe he has followed the animal side. We all have weakness of the animal soul with its desires, but pure spirit; mind can raise us to a higher level of pure actions.

Badr:  Then, what is the relationship between us and animals?

Dina: We are to some extent similar to them but we have something extra, the "spirit". There are, however, similarities, certain animals and human characteristics  e.g. we find that man or woman can be cunning, like a fox, gentle like an ostrich, and majestic like a lion, aggressive like a  tiger, loyal like a dog, patient like a donkey, proud like a peacock, or like cattle led by tyrant, etc.

  However, God planned for us the Straight Path, to be believers, so that we may save ourselves and lead a life of virtue as civilized human being within law of justice not with law of jungle.

Charles: There are many societies that define good, and live by it, without Revelation, but those who have guidance don’t seem to fare much better.

Abbara:  You are right. We pointed out earlier that God gave us the ability to distinguish good from evil, and supported that by His Revelation, although this natural disposition may be corrupted by our environment. Therefore, the Revelation is the criterion to judge ourselves by it in continuous basis.

Charles:  Well, I think man has to believe in Jesus for his salvation of original sin. Anyone does not belief; he boned himself to the sin, so he behaves badly. 

Abbara:  According to God revelation, we are free of what Christian call Original Sin. God states clearly that He forgave Adam his act of disobedience "... and He accepted his repentance: for verily, He alone is the Acceptor of Repentance, the Dispenser of Grace."  [2:37]. We bear the responsibility for our actions.

Dina:  The doctrine of forgiveness of sins was one of the most bounteous of Gods gifts to mankind, but the influence of Satan makes deviation from the Right Path inherent in humane nature. A believer will repent and put right his behaviour and return back to right Guidance of God, while a disbeliever will be easily misguided by his wrong action.

Charles:  What is the role of man on earth according to Islam?

Dina:   If he is a true believer in applying justice, he is God's vicegerent on the earth, as the Qur'an says:  "The Lord said to the Angels, 'I will create a khalifa (vicegerent on earth)'" [2:30].  The term khalifa is derived from the verb khalafa, "to succeed (another)" and is used in this allegory to denote man's rightful supremacy on earth.

Abbara:  This does not mean that any man is a vicegerent, but it could be applied to Adam and also to the Prophets, because they spoke on the Command of God.

Dina:  On the other hand, the Qur'an describes man as an open opponent to God, as is stated: "He has created man from a sperm-drop and behold, this same man becomes an open disputer." [16:4] that same being shows himself as being endowed with the power to think and argue.

Badr:  We have seen that God created Adam from clay and the Qur'an also pointed out that He created all of us out of dust, "It is He who Creates you out of dust, and then out of a drop of sperm, and then out of a germ-cell;..."[40:67] What is the  relationship between us and earth and Adam?

Abbara:  The Qur'an points out that He created Adam from earth as well. We are from Adam and Eve as well as from our parents. People's bodies are like a factory that transforms food which itself is a product of the earth.

Badr:  Therefore the nature of man may differ to some extent from one area to another and the anthropologists have been right to point out the different characteristics of each nation.

Abbara:  Yes, you are correct. Ibn Khaldun wrote a chapter about "the temperate and the intemperate zones and the influence of the air upon the colour of human beings and upon many other aspects of their conditions". He also mentioned the influence of climate upon human characters and the "difference with regard to abundance and scarcity of food in the various inhabited regions and how they affect the human body and morals." 21

Dina:    God created us for next life not for this, isn’t that so?                  Why This Life?


"Who created death and life that He may try you which of you is best in conduct?" [Qur'an, 67:2].


Abbara:  The Qur'an gives a brief answer as to why God created the universe: "God has not created this otherwise than in accordance with the Truth," [10:5], implying that everything, whether existing or potentially existing, concrete or abstract, is meaningful and that nothing is "accidental".

Dina:   The Qur'an also says: "And (thus it is :) We have not created heaven and earth and all that is between without meaning and purpose, as is thought by those who are bent on denying the Truth." [38:27]. and: “We have not created the heavens and the earth and all that is between in mere idle play." [21:16]. this tells us that we are a purposeful creation of God.

Abbara:  The universe was created by God for a purpose: "And he has made subservient to you, (as a Gift) from Himself, all that is in the heavens and on earth; in this, behold, there are signs indeed for people who think." [45:13]. God endowed man, alone among all living beings, with a creative mind, and thus with the ability to make conscious use of the nature that surrounds him and is within him, without neglecting his purpose on earth.

Badr:   What is our purpose in this life?

Abbara: The Qur'an makes it clear that moral teaching becomes of wider importance to us after we come to believe in God, so that we can fulfil the purpose for which we were created. Our life and death here is seen as an introduction to an eternal life. "He who has created death as well as life, so that He might put you to a test (and thus show) which of you is best in conduct, and (make you realise that) He alone is Almighty, Truly Forgiving." [67:2]. This indicates that the main thing is to conduct oneself properly, so educators should try by all means to teach man, to achieve this major aim, the "sublime way of life", to teach man to live in moral peace and to be brothers to one another in relation to one Absolute without regard to an "absolute" on earth.

Dina:  Hussein and Ashrif say "A great writer has the humanity to realise various possibilities and choices and the possibility of modified perceptions and realisations; every moment is a new start. But only when there is a final goal and a supreme framework can this indicate progress, achievement, expansion and realisation. Otherwise, he may go round and round without direction."22

Abbara:   Islam provides us with a final goal for mankind. With this goal in view and with the ethical code that enables man to practise and grow through knowledge and action, man can proceed towards a new destiny and ever-new realisation, to achieve his purpose, to progress from this temporary life to the eternal one. Here on earth is action, but in the next life there will be the estimation of those actions. This life, determines our destiny in the next life. Right religious and action; secure the save end.
 What is Human Destiny?

 “Verily, man is bound to lose himself except those who attain to faith, and do righteous deeds and counsel each other unto the Truth and counsel each other to be steadfast." [Qur'an 103:2-3]

Abbara:  God describes man's destiny as being in his own hands and He shows him the two paths, the good one and the evil one.  Man can easily get lost, as God states: "Consider the flight of time; verily man is bound to lose himself, except those who attain to Faith and do good works, and enjoin one another in patience and in adversity."[103: 2-3]. So if he or she wants to safeguard his destiny, he can only do so by faith and good deeds, following the Truth and showing endurance and steadfastness.

Dina:  Therefore Islam teaches that man's destiny is in his own hands. Then can we answer the questions: what are his quality, his originality, his power, his ability, and his position on earth?

Abbara: Men all differ to some extent from the average. The quality of man is very difficult to bring into being, his personality and his characteristics stand behind his power and his ability. No matter how strong he is, he is bound by his limits to other powers around him and particularly to his death. This is why our aim is to build relationships between ourselves and with the God, so that we may be guided to the Right Way in order to become true Muslims. True believers who do right would save their destiny, not every Muslim, as some thought.

2.7.3.The Relationship Between Islam and Muslims


"Now, among those whom we have created, there are people who guide (others) in the way of the Truth and act justly in its Light" [Qur'an,7:181]


Abbara:  Islam is not a political party that anyone might be a member of. In fact, Islam dominates the individual and puts him on the Straight Path and regulates his whole life style as true believers. Islam teaches that a Muslim must work as though he is going to live forever, and fulfil his spiritual life as if he is going to die tomorrow. It regulates human relations and public affairs with the aim of ensuring the welfare of human life. But the problem is human weakness as Mawdudi said: "If the laws of ethics and the injunctions and principles of religion, and the principles of culture serve one's purpose he would put his faith in them gladly, but if they interfere with his interest he would set them aside and invent and adopt some other principle or theory."23 

Badr: My friend Wan, a journalist says: Believers consult God in their affairs, but as a Muslims we sometimes consult our pillows by sleeping on it, for example.

Charles:  What are the main factors in the apparently widening gap between Muslims and Islam?

Dina:  Gai Eaton gave the answer: "These facts, however, are related to practice and not to principles, and he is under no obligation to defend or to attempt to justify the manner in which the religion is practised in a particular period of history by those of its adherents who catch the light and attract attention. Where human beings are concerned, good men and good women are by no means thick on the ground, but vice always pays its tribute to virtue by masquerading behind the mask of religion or, more recently, of some political ideology, and both wickedness and stupidity walk the streets more confidently when decently clothed. 24 hence, the wide gap between theory and practise creates a cavity in the relationship between Muslim and God’s religion. 

Abbara:  In modern times Muslims have more infections or disease than the past. In the past, the cause that led to the general degradation of Muslims was within themselves, but now we cannot ignore that Muslims have been affected by dominant the West in their recent colonial history of the last two centuries of the last millennium and carry on by their allies, who try to twist Islamic principle more than before. The effect has been the rise of new political religious groups and diverse direct or indirect forms of opinion. Every party has a different plan for Muslim revival, either by using force and influence, or wisdom, or Islamic ideology, or even Western ideology. Still others seek a new understanding of the Divine law, rejecting the traditional interpretation, or else see religion as a private matter or as both private and public, and yet others reject religion altogether and seek to create a secular society. And those who consider themselves true believers; they follow Islam only in part. Such; different views and interpretation; reflecting on Muslims societies and gives incorrect belief about Islam rather than Muslims.

Charles: But why always blame colonialism for your decline and forget your own inner colonialism by egoism, which takes "self interest" as your diet or deity? So if a community is weak and cannot manage its affairs, it always blames external conspiracy.

Dina:  There are many trends, fashionable ideas and ideologies in Muslim countries. If you could outline them, it may clarify the relationship.

Abbara: first of all, as we mentioned that Islam is the message of peace, but Muslim made it the impression of aggression. In answering your inquiry, we can say: There are many different tendencies on the road to Muslim revival. First of all, to be change from Muslim outlook becomes true believers. The obstacle of these changes so many; some are:

*  The general Islamic education need to match up with God teaching as a whole, with coordinative objective, not as an purpose objective.      

*  The Modernists, who attempt to reconcile Islam with alien concepts that nevertheless seem to have useful applications to legal systems, government structures, education, etc.

*   The Traditionalists who insist on a return to basic principles of Islam in all affairs.

*   The secular parties, who promote imported man-made systems.

*   New religious groups, who put forward various formulae to serve their own interests, these are usually coloured by political intentions; may use violence against honest people, in intention; if you cannot face the master kill his dog or destroy his home. So, they spread corruption by name of God, who did not gives any authority to anyone to represent Him on earth, in particular, there is not Muslim community to administrates His teaching. Of course, everyone has the authority to defend himself if he is Muslim or not.  

      Some of these grouping have allegiance to one of the political powers and rarely have loyalty to God alone; where they have, they misapply His Injunctions. While Islam after true belief seeks existing justice in all affairs between Muslims and non-Muslims as well, but every group claims God’s permission to do what they wish by in force, using their own interpretation .

Badr:  I want to understand the Message of Islam as a modern man, not as someone from centuries ago, blindly accepting it in the Name of God. Can I accept in all honesty and sincerity the religious tenets they accepted without compromising my intellectual integrity?

Abbara:  Such an attitude is the result of not having had an adequate understanding of Islam as the main link between God and His creation.

Badr: But, I consider its resilience is needed to adapt it to modern thought and modern life not to old.

Dina: Those who are ignorant of its civilised principles, fro the past and future as an original values, appropriate with creation. If you cannot define your way, who is going to be blamed but religion?

Charles:  What do you think is the starting point for transforming the relationship between Islam and the Muslims?

Abbara:   Firstly, education. The Qur'an demands in its first word of Revelation, "Read".  This is the key to building up the cognition, knowledge, reasoning, perception and good ideas of right and wrong.

Charles:  That is what most religions teach.

Dina:  Other religions depend on trust – “Stop reasoning and follow me. I will save you.”, while Islam says, “Kindle your reason and follow me." Blind obedience without proper education is not required, particularly in modern times, when people feel free to criticise without true knowledge.

Abbara:  The Qur'an points out the characteristics of such Muslims and makes no distinction between hypocrisy and ignorance; both unknowingly leading to corruption. The following verses were revealed to describe hypocrisy, but there is no explicit reference to particular persons. These verses have a general, timeless import, inasmuch as they refer to all people who are prone to deceive themselves in order to evade a spiritual commitment, because we are deceived by our ignorance more than anything else. Hence we read:

     "And there are people who say, 'We do believe in God and the Last Day,' the while they do not (really) believe. They would deceive God and those who have attained faith - but they deceive none but themselves, and perceive it not.  In their hearts is disease, and so God lets their disease increase; and grievous suffering awaits them because of their persistent lying. And when they are told 'Do not spread corruption on earth', they answer, 'We are but improving things.' Oh, verily, it is they who are spreading corruption - but they perceive it not.  And when they are told, 'Believe as other people believe', they answer, 'Shall we believe as the weak-minded believe?'  Oh, verily, it is they, they who are weak-minded - but know it not.  And when they meet those who have attained to faith, they assert 'We believe (as you believe)'; but when they find themselves alone with their evil impulses they say, 'Verily, we are with you.  We were only mocking.'" [2:8-14]. These verses distinguish the true Muslims from those who ignorantly deceive themselves and others, yet in most Muslims you find a gap between saying and doing. Admittedly the type of education we receive does not promote cognitive development i.e., it does not provide pure knowledge and reasoning.    

Dina: The Prophet foresaw the present relationship between Islam and Muslims fourteen centuries ago, when he described how the Muslims would lose their faith, heart and the respect of other nations. He said, "In the future, the nations will call upon you as hungry men call for the cook."  They said, "Is it because we shall be in the minority at that time?"  The Prophet said, "Verily you will be numerous but you will be as the froth in the flotsam of dead leaves and scum borne on the surface of a torrent, and God will remove from the hearts of your enemy the dread and fear of you and He will place in your hearts weaknesses." One asked, "O Prophet of God, what are these weaknesses?" and the Prophet replied, "Those which show a passion for worldly life and fear of death." 25  In another Hadith, the Prophet says:  "The strong believer is much better than the weak one."

Charles:  Are you saying that the outlook of some Muslims does not comply with Islam?

Dina:  One can find all sorts of tendencies among those Muslims who follow their own judgment rather than apply Islamic principles. What surprises me is an Arab who understands the Qur’an and is an unbeliever, and more surprising still, some Muslims read the Qur’an but are not true Muslims and may never pray, while non-Arabs became Muslims.  

Abbara:  One may pray, but his prayer does not prevent one from doing evil things. Non-Muslims, always judge Islam unfortunately, by such people, and by what is going on in Muslim countries where Islamic principles are applied only in part in relation to justice and helping others, while on the other side they are also quite corrupt.

   Spiritual nourishment is a gift from God Who gives it to those pure and sincere in their faith. For Arabs or those who are born Muslims, God gives them in the Qur’an so many lessons that they may be mindful, but because the belief only in the present life, God places an invisible barrier on their hearts [spirit and its faculties, the mind], which prevents them from grasping the Qura’nic message. So long as they insist on their way of life, they will never allow themselves to be guided even if you call them to the right path. Pure spiritual life in Islam demands a pure spirit not a political party that anyone can join in.

Dina:  Also some Muslims may find it is good business to use the Islamic label. For example, an Islamic shop may sell unclean meat as "Halal meat" or they may sell wine, which they are forbidden not only to drink but also to sell, and display the Name of God in the shop as an advertisement.

  In the same way this label; Islamic business is used by many groups practising Islam, or so called himself Islamic scholar, who make his Judgement as Islamic one. Nowadays, there is no true Islamic scholar, and so-called Muslims who make mischief on the earth in the name of Islam. But they do not realise it. Such people think that they have a mission of peace, when, in fact, they do not even have a true perception of right and wrong. By their blind arrogance and ignorance, they increase greed and encourage evil. They are indeed foolish, but they do not realise it. This is where we should investigate the relationship between Muslims and Islam; which means Muslims and God.

   The Western mass media attribute the behaviour of Muslims  to Islam, speaking of "the Islamic way of life", and " Islamic religion" and giving the ideas of particular Muslims as "Islamic creed", "Islamic history", "Islamic marriage", "Islamic violence", "Islamic values", and so on. The contrast between Islam and Muslims will be known to the speaker, but the viewers or listeners will believe that what they hear, read or see in some programs represent Islam, without realising that their purpose is to denigrate Islam, as we see the opinion who speaks in the media.

Abbara:  However, there are non-Muslims who know the truth and do not judge Islam by such fabrications. There are true Muslims, believers, who follow the ideals of Islam, there is, however, a relationship between them and Islam to some degree. So the ratio of relationship between zeros and average, there is no significant relationship in total application of Islamic teaching. 

Charles:  Why are the Muslims diverted from Islam?  If it is practical, Muslims would not leave it out of their spiritual or public life.

Dina:  Often, I think that through their digression from the way of Islam, they have gone astray, cutting off their relationship with God and losing His Guidance, particularly in public affairs. Therefore, God demands of them: "And (know) that this is the Way leading straight unto Me: follow it, then, and follow not other ways, lest they cause you to deviate from His Way. (All) this has He enjoined upon you, so that you might remain conscious of Him." [6:153], but unfortunately Muslim are following the self-interest rules.

Charles:  Yet we hear of actions that cannot be attributed to Islam or the true Muslim or what they do in the name of Islam? How can we know the fact?

Abbara:  Reading about Islam may give the reader a good basis to judge the relationships between Muslims and Islam or true Muslims (believers) and Islam. Most Muslims admits this lack but then they start to blame one another, but in fact the practise is widespread and there is a need for more effort to create justice, a just relationship between the life of Muslims and the way of life designed by God for the welfare of human beings to elevate them to higher attainments.

      God command true Muslims to be tolerance with non Muslims He says to: “Tell all who have believed that they should forgive those who do not believe… for Him [alone] to requite people for whatever they have earned” [45:14]. So the revenge of some Muslims is based on their own judgements how to gain their rights, which may use unlawful, Islamic means.

Dina:  There is, nevertheless, a relationship between individual Muslims and the Qur'an. All of them respect and use it as a spiritual source and it plays an important role as the highest common denominator among them. Since this relationship exists, it may be enough to create significant changes in the future. There are some people who are very sincere, working hard to improve this relationship over a period of time. The Qura’nic teaching is far better, in the case of ethics, social relations, family relations and moral issues, than that of the other societies, but Islam demands more in applying just principles in public affairs for all and not only the national community.

Charles:  When you go to mosques, particularly for the Friday or for the 'Eid Prayer, the congregation gives the impression that there is a real relationship between Muslims and Islam.

Abbara:  True enough, you are correct, but Islam demands not only outward manifestations of praying or fasting or using words for spiritual satisfaction, but these should correspond to actions towards others. As we said, Islam is not only a ritual or a private matter; it is the Code of Life in all its dimensions. Belief and worship as a mean for dealing honestly in public affairs. If praying does not prevent evil befalling, what does it mean?  It means no more than spiritual habit. So it has no effect.

Dina: M. Asad distinguishes between habit and piety when he says that true piety does not consist of mere adherence to outward forms and rites. Just as piety cannot become effective without righteous actions, individual righteousness cannot become really effective in the social sense unless there is agreement within the community as to the social rights and obligations of its members. This is the innermost reason why the Qur'an consistently intertwines its moral and spiritual exhortation with ordinances relating to the practical aspects of life. 26.

Abbara: In conclusion, God says that Muslim in their own moral life, far better than non Muslim: [What, shall We make those who surrendered like to the sinner? What ails you then, how you judge?”[65:35] between those who do believe and do right and those who does not believes and do wrong? Lot of non-Muslims becomes Muslims to save their life morally by Islamic principle, such as stop drinking, gambling, stealing, and sincerity between supposes etc.






<< Previous

Next >>



All rights Reserved. Last Updated: Sunday, 21 May 2006. For Website related issues please email